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Geography Syllabus for UPSC: Indian and World Geography Physical, Social, Economic Geography of India and the World.

As may be obvious, the prospectus makes reference to just 1 line. Allow us to check out at the subtleties now.

Indian Geography

1. Basics of India

  1. Location, latitude, longitude, time zone, etc.
  2. Neighbours
  3. Important straits
  4. States and their position
  5. States with international boundaries

2. Physical features

  1. The Himalayas – geological formation, climate, vegetation, soil, biodiversity, physiographic divisions, major passes, significance
  2. The Great North Indian Plains – geological formation, physiographic divisions, climate, vegetation, soil, biodiversity, significance
  3. Peninsular Plateau – geological formation, Central Highlands, Deccan Plateau, Western Ghats, Eastern Ghats
  4. Indian Desert
  5. Coastal plains and islands

3. River systems

  1. Himalayan rivers
  2. Peninsular rivers
  3. River basins
  4. Regional development and planning
  5. Hydropower projects, major dams
  6. West-flowing and east-flowing rivers

4. Climate

  1. Monsoons – driving mechanism, El Nino, La Nina
  2. Seasons

5. Minerals and industries – mineral distribution, industrial policies, location

6. Agriculture

  1. Land utilisation
  2. Types of agricultural practices
  3. Soils and crops
  4. Irrigation
  5. Land reforms
  6. Animal husbandry
  7. Government schemes

7. Natural vegetation and fauna

  1. Classification of natural vegetation
  2. Biosphere reserves, national parks, etc.
  3. Red-listed species

8. Economic infrastructure

  1. Transportation (highways, inland waterways, etc.)
  2. Power and energy sector
  3. Conventional and non-conventional sources of energy
  4. Energy conservation

9. Human Geography

  1. Demographics
  2. Recent census

World Geography

  1. Major natural regions
  2. Regional geography of developed countries
  3. Regional geography of developing countries
  4. Regional geography of South Asia

Physical Geography

1. Geomorphology

  1. Origin of the earth
  2. Interior of the earth
  3. Types and characteristics of rocks
  4. Folding and Faulting
  5. Volcanoes, earthquakes
  6. Interior of the earth
  7. Weathering
  8. Landforms formed by fluvial, aeolian and glacial actions

2. Climatology

  1. Atmosphere – structure and composition
  2. Temperature
  3. Wind systems
  4. Clouds and types of rainfall
  5. Cyclones and anti-cyclones
  6. Major climatic types

3. Oceanography

  1. Ocean relief
  2. Temperature, salinity
  3. Ocean deposits
  4. Ocean currents
  5. El Nino and La Nina
  6. Waves and tides

4. Biogeography

  1. Soil – origin and types
  2. Major biomes of the world
  3. Ecosystem, food chain
  4. Environmental degradation and conservation

Human Geography

  1. Man & environment; relationship, growth and development of human geography; determinism and possibilism
  2. Population, tribes, migration
  3. Economic activities agriculture, manufacturing, industries, tertiary activities
  4. Settlements, urbanisation, functional classification of towns, million-cities and megacities
  • Area based questions relating to India and the world are likewise asked in the prelims.
  • The UPSC contains the prospectus of the geology discretionary alongside different subjects.

UPSC Mains Geography Syllabus

Topography is fundamental for the GS paper I in the IAS mains test. The timetable for GS Geography is given under:

  • Circulation of key regular assets across the world including South Asia and the Indian sub-mainland; factors answerable for the area of essential, optional, and tertiary area ventures in different regions of the planet including India
  • Significant Geophysical peculiarities, for example, tremors, Tsunami, Volcanic action, typhoons and so on, topographical elements and their area changes in basic geological highlights (counting water-bodies and ice-covers) and in greenery and the impacts of such changes.
  • Salient features of the world’s physical geography (geomorphology, climatology, oceanography, biogeography and environmental geography)
  • Geomorphology – the interior of the earth, tectonics, physical phenomenon, mountain building, volcanoes, earthquakes, weathering & erosion, rocks, landforms
  • Climatology – atmosphere, temperature distribution, jet streams, pressure & wind systems, airmasses, fronts, cyclones, humidity, precipitation, geographical phenomenon, climatic regions of the world
  • Oceanography – ocean relief, temperature distribution, ocean currents, salinity, coral bleaching, marine pollution, sea level change, UN laws, etc.
  • Biography – soil profile, degradation, conservation), biotic regions, deforestation and conservation of forests, changes in critical geographical features, environmental pollution

Book List For Geography

  • Certificate Physical & Human Geography (Oxford) by Goh Cheng Leong 
  • NCERTs (New Editions)
    • XI Standard: (1) India – Physical Environment (2) Fundamentals of Physical Geography 
    • XII Standard: (1) India – People & Economy (2) Fundamentals of Human Geography 
  • School Atlas – Orient Black Swan 
  • Indian Geography by D. R. Khullar