UPSC Syllabus 2022  – Prelims, Mains and Interview

Management of studies during UPSC the Civil Services Examination is very critical. To properly plan and manage the studies it is essential to understand the syllabus. The Syllabus is the gateway to UPSC Prelims and Mains examinations. Syllabus provides the aspirant with the scope of the topics to be covered. The aspirants should channelize all their endeavors well to satisfies the needs of the examination. In such a scenario, the Syllabus copy guides the aspirants to follow the correct and required path. 

Benefits of Understanding the syllabus: –

  • When the aspirants analyse syllabus, they get know the common topics to be covered for Prelims and Mains Examinations. These points can be studied integrating the Prelims and Mains scope. 
  • This not only eases the preparation but also saves valuable time. 
  • If an aspirant keeps study without analysing the syllabus, he may end up studying relevant and useless material. In this process the aspirants will lose their most valuable time. 
  • To avoid this analysing the UPSC Prelims and Mains syllabus before starting the preparation is crucial.

Download UPSC Syllabus In English 2022 PDF – Click here
Download UPSC Syllabus In Hindi 2022 PDF: Click here


  • Among the three stages of the UPSC exam, the first stage is the Preliminary Exam. 
  • It comprises two papers of 200 marks each containing objective-type multiple-choice questions. 
  • The time allotted to attempt each exam is 2 hours which needs to be mandatorily attempted by the candidates. 
  • The candidates need to score qualifying marks to clear the cut-off. 
  • The Prelims consists of two papers of 200 marks each. 
  • Paper 1 consists of the General studies syllabus. 
  • Paper-2 (CSAT) in the Civil Services (Preliminary) Examination is a qualifying paper with minimum qualifying marks fixed at 33%. 
  • The question papers will be set in both Hindi and English.

You can also read: IAS Full Form

The IAS Prelims exam details:

ExamTotal marksDurationNo. of questionsNegative MarkingNatureRequired marks to qualify
GS 12002 hours100YesMarks counted for rankingCut-off prescribed by UPSC
GS 22002 hours80YesQualifying only33% (66/200)

General Studies Paper-1 Syllabus:

  1. Current events of national and international importance.
  2. History of India and Indian National Movement.
  3. Indian and World Geography-Physical, Social, Economic Geography of India and the World.
  4. Indian Polity and Governance – Constitution, Political System, Panchayati Raj, Public Policy, Rights Issues, etc.
  5. Economic and Social Development – Sustainable Development, Poverty, Inclusion, Demographics, Social Sector initiatives, etc.
  6. General issues on Environmental Ecology, Biodiversity and Climate Change- that do not require subject specialization.
  7. General Science.

General Studies Paper-2 (CSAT) Syllabus:

  1. Comprehension.
  2. Interpersonal skills including communication skills;
  3. Logical reasoning and analytical ability.
  4. Decision-making and problem-solving.
  5. General mental ability.
  6. Basic numeracy (numbers and their relations, orders of magnitude, etc.) (Class X level)
  7. Data interpretation (charts, graphs, tables, data sufficiency, etc. – Class X level).
  8. English language comprehension skills – Class X level.


  • Candidates who qualify Preliminary exam are called for the Main exam. 
  • The UPSC mains exam is conducted in 2 parts: – qualifying papers and merit exams. 
  • There are a total of 9 papers in the Mains exam. Every paper is of 3 hours and extra 30 minutes extra is given to blind students.
  • Paper A and Paper B are 300 marks each and the remaining papers are 250 marks each.
  • The questions in Mains are of the subjective type and can be written in either Hindi or English language.

You can also read: IPS Full Form

Exam pattern: –

PaperSubjectDurationTotal marksTime Allotted
Paper ACompulsory Indian language3 hours3003 hours
Paper BEnglish3 hours3003 hours
Paper IEssay3 hours2503 hours
Paper-IIGeneral Studies I3 hours2503 hours
Paper IIIGeneral Studies II3 hours2503 hours
Paper IVGeneral Studies III3 hours2503 hours
Paper VGeneral Studies IV3 hours2503 hours
Paper VIOptional I3 hours2503 hours
Paper VIIOptional II3 hours2503 hours
Sub TotalWritten Test 1750 
 Personality Test  275 
 Grand Total 2025 

Exam Syllabus: –

General Studies Paper – I
Indian Culture – Salient aspects of Art Forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.Modern Indian HistorySignificant events, issues, personalities during the middle of the eighteenth century (1750s) until the present.Different stages and important contributors and contributions from various parts of the country in ‘The Freedom Struggle’.Post-independence consolidation and reorganisation within the country.History of the worldEvents, forms and effect on society since the 18th century (world wars, industrial revolution, colonisation, redrawal of national boundaries, decolonisation, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism, etc.)SocietyIndian society and diversity – Salient aspects.Role of women and women’s organisations, population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues, urbanisation, their problems and remedies.Social empowerment, communalism, regionalism & secularism.Effects of globalisation on Indian society.GeographyDistribution of key natural resources across the world including South Asia and the Indian sub-continent; factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world including India.Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc.Geographical features and their location, changes in critical geographical features (including water-bodies and polar ice caps) and, in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.Salient features of world’s physical geography.
General Studies Paper – II
Indian Constitutionhistorical underpinnings,evolution, featuresamendments, significant provisionsbasic structure doctrineComparison of the Indian constitutional scheme with that of other countriesFunctions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein.Separation of powers between various organs, dispute redressal mechanisms and institutionsStructure, organisation and functioning of the Executive and the JudiciaryParliament and State Legislaturesstructure, functioningconduct of businesspowers & privileges and issues arising out of theseMinistries and Departments of the Government; pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity.Salient features of the Representation of People’s ActAppointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions and responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies.Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies.Government policies and interventions aimed at development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.Development processes and the development industry – the role of NGOs, SHGs, various groups and associations, institutional and other stakeholders.Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and the States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human ResourcesIssues relating to poverty and hungerImportant aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance- applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency & accountability and institutional and other measuresRole of civil services in a democracyInternational RelationsIndia and its neighbourhood – International relationsBilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting the Indian interestsEffect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora.Important International institutions, agencies, their structure and mandates
General Studies Paper – III
Economy Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment. Government Budgeting. Inclusive growth and associated issues/challenges Effects of liberalization on the economy (post 1991 changes), changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth. Infrastructure – Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc. Investment models (PPP etc) Agriculture Major cropping patterns in various parts of the country, different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints; e-technology in the aid of farmers Economics of animal rearing. Food processing and related industries in India – scope and significance, location, upstream and downstream requirements, supply chain management. Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices; Public Distribution System objectives, functioning, limitations, revamping; issues of buffer stocks and food security; Technology missions and reforms in India. Science and Technology Recent developments and their applications and effects in everyday life Achievements of Indians in science & technology.Indigenisation of technology and developing new technology. General awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, Robotics, Nanotechnology, bio-technology Issues relating to intellectual property rights Environment Conservation, Environmental pollution and degradation Environmental impact assessment Disaster Management (Laws, Acts etc.)Security Challenges to internal security (external state and non-state actors)Linkages between development and spread of extremism Challenges to internal security through communication networks, role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges, Basics of cyber security; money-laundering and its prevention Security challenges and their management in border areas; linkages of organized crime with terrorism Various Security forces and agencies and their mandates
General Studies Paper – IV
Ethics and Human Interface Essence of Ethics, Determinants and Consequences of Ethics in Human Interaction Dimensions of Ethics Ethics in private and public relationships Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators Role of family, society and educational institutions in inculcating moral and ethical values Attitude Content, structure and function of attitude Influence of attitude in thought and behavior Relation of attitude to thought and behavior Moral and Political attitudes Social influence and persuasion Aptitude Aptitude and foundational values of Civil Service Integrity Impartiality and non-partisanship Objectivity Dedication to public service Empathy, tolerance and compassion towards the weaker sections of the society Emotional Intelligence Concepts of emotional intelligence Utility and application of emotional intelligence in administration and governance Contributions of Thinkers and Philosophers Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and the world to the concepts of morality Public/Civil Service Values and Ethics in Public Administration Status and associated problems Ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions Laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance Accountability and ethical governance Strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance Ethical Issues in international relations and funding Corporate governance Probity in Governance Concept of public service The philosophical basis of governance and probity Information sharing and transparency in government Right to Information Codes of ethics Codes of Conduct Citizen’s Charters Work culture Quality of service delivery Utilization of public funds Challenges of corruption

How to analyse the UPSC Syllabus?

  1. Download the Prelims and Mains syllabus from UPSC website Besides it can be easily obtained from any IAS institutes websites.
  2. Understand the UPSC Prelims and Mains Syllabus separately. Find out the topics from each subject which are common for prelims as well as mains.
  3. Start with Mains topics from General studies (GS1, GS2, GS3, GS4) Syllabus. Pick a topic from each of the General studies Papers of UPSC. Then check the Previous Year questions of Prelims and Mains asked on the particular topic. Aspirants should check the previous year’s questions from 2013 to 2021. 
  4. After analysing each topic, the you can prepare a comprehensive note considering the Prelims and Mains coverage. Also keep adding the relevant points from current news to make your notes more valuable. 
  5. The aspirants should read the relevant NCERTs and revise their notes multiple times. Particularly, a quick revision of the relevant books of history, polity, geography, and macroeconomics is a must. Revise your own notes, subject-wise. Complete their revision at least two to three times in these three months.


For the Mains phase of the IAS exam, an aspirant need to pick an Optional subject of their choice. UPSC provides a list of 48 optional subjects. Among the 48 subjects one subject have to be selected as Optional. The total marks allocated for the optional subject is 500 which can make a huge difference in the overall result of the aspirant. In order to study well and secure good marks in Mains exam and to get a good rank, the UPSC aspirants should carefully analyse and choose their Optional Subject. With well-planned strategies, you can easily score well in the Bengali literature. Interest should be the prime criteria for choosing any optional.

Optional exam Pattern

  • The aspirants have to appear for two optional papers of same subject which they have selected for IAS (UPSC CSE) Main Exam. 
  • Each paper is of 250 marks, making a total of 500 marks.
  • Duration for each Optional mains paper is 3 hours. 

Factors to be considered while choosing an optional Subject for UPSC Mains Exam: –

  1. Syllabus Coverage:  The aspirants should analyse the syllabus of the optional subject, to be chosen, in details. Considering the length of the Optional subjects and the General studies subjects to be covered. 
  2. Familiarity with Subject: – Different aspirants come from different graduation streams. Choosing an optional which is completely out of familiarity will left the aspirants frustrated. The aspirants should consider their subjects of graduation and then decide the Optional subject.
  3. Availability of Resources: – Preparing for an Optional subject of 500 marks require a good amount resources for every topic. Besides the aspirants also needs to value – add content in the material. The aspirants should take into the consideration that how easily good study material is available for an optional subject on internet and offline mode.
  4. Level of Competition :- A few applicants feel a decent UPSC Optional subject is the one that has a high achievement ratio as far as various aspirants are appearing. Nonetheless, it is just incompletely evident. More than all the other things, your answer copy will be assessed based only on your answer’s understandability. Thus, pick a subject that you’re OK with.

Overlapping Syllabus: – An aspirant should consider the same topics that are to be covered from the Optional Syllabus and the General studies syllabus. The aspirants should choose the subject which have more overlapping topics. This will reduce the time to read the same topic and enhance the writing capability of the aspirant.

Civil Services Exam Syllabus For IAS Mains Optional Subjects Table

Agriculture SyllabusZoology Syllabus
Animal Husbandry & Veterinary Science SyllabusAssamese (Literature) Syllabus
Anthropology SyllabusBengali (Literature) Syllabus
Botany SyllabusBodo (Literature) Syllabus
Chemistry SyllabusDogri (Literature) Syllabus
Civil Engineering SyllabusGujarati (Literature) Syllabus
Commerce & Accountancy SyllabusHindi (Literature) Syllabus
Economics SyllabusKannada (Literature) Syllabus
Electrical Engineering SyllabusKashmiri (Literature) Syllabus
Geography SyllabusKonkani (Literature) Syllabus
Geology SyllabusMaithili (Literature) Syllabus
History SyllabusMalayalam (Literature) Syllabus
Law SyllabusManipuri (Literature) Syllabus
Management SyllabusMarathi (Literature) Syllabus
Mathematics SyllabusNepali (Literature) Syllabus
Mechanical Engineering SyllabusOdia (Literature) Syllabus
Medical Science SyllabusPunjabi (Literature) Syllabus
Philosophy SyllabusSanskrit (Literature) Syllabus
Physics SyllabusSanthali (Literature) Syllabus
Political Science & International Relations SyllabusSindhi (Literature) Syllabus
Psychology SyllabusTamil (Literature) Syllabus
Public Administration SyllabusTelugu (Literature) Syllabus
Sociology SyllabusEnglish (Literature) Syllabus
Statistics SyllabusUrdu (Literature) Syllabus

You can also read: IAS Interview

Frequently Asked Questions:

  1. What does the UPSC do?

Answer. UPSC is India’s central government organisation that administers exams such as the Civil Services Exam (CSE) to recruit candidates for key government positions such as IAS, IPS, and IFS. The UPSC selects candidates for both civil and military services.

  1. Who is eligible for UPSC exam?

Answer. A candidate who is a citizen of India, or a subject of Nepal, Bhutan, or Tibet who settled in India before January 1, 1962; candidate who is a Graduate Degree from a recognised University; candidate who is a minimum of 21 years of age and not more than 32 years of age are eligible for UPSC Exam.

  1. What are the jobs under UPSC?

Answer. Indian Administrative Services (IAS), Indian Police Services (IPS), Indian Foreign Services (IFS), Indian Revenue Services (IRS-IT), and Indian Railway Traffic Services (IRTS) are the many job profiles under UPSC Services.

  1. What is difference between IAS and UPSC?

Answer. Officially known as the Civil Services Examination (CSE), the IAS exam is held every year by the Union Public Service Commission, which is the principal recruiting agency (UPSC). The Indian Administrative Service (IAS) is the country’s permanent bureaucracy and is part of the executive branch.

  1. How can I crack UPSC?

Answer. Yes, it is possible to pass the IAS exam without taking any classes. However, ‘everyone’ may not be the case. It is contingent on his or her ability to self-study effectively. You can pass UPSC CSE without any classroom coaching if you are proficient at self-study.

  1. What is salary of UPSC?

Answer. The initial base monthly compensation for an IAS official is Rs. 56,100, with the highest income now being Rs. 2,50,000 for a Cabinet Secretary.

  1. What are the subjects in UPSC?

Answer. History, Geography, Political Science / Civics, Economics, General Science – Physics, Chemistry, and Biology, Environmental Science, and Sociology are among the UPSC Prelims Subjects.

  1. What is the basic syllabus for UPSC?

Answer. History, Geography, Politics, Economics, General Science – Physics, and Environmental Science are the basic subjects for UPSC.

  1. Why is UPSC so tough?

Answer. The UPSC exam is one of India’s most difficult to pass, but it’s not impossible if you use the appropriate method. The UPSC exam is one of India’s most difficult to pass, but it’s not impossible if you use the appropriate method.

  1. Is 1 year enough for IAS preparation?

Answer. Yes, without couching, one year is sufficient for IAS preparation. You can pass this exam on your first attempt if you focus your studies. Preparing for UPSC is a full-time job in and of itself; you must put in at least 6-8 hours per day during your preparation.

Additional FAQs

Which category of candidates is exempted from payment of Examination fee?

Answer. Female applicants, Persons with Benchmark Disabilities (PwBD), and candidates belonging to the Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe groups are excused from paying the Examination Fee in all of the Commission’s examinations.

What is the structure of the Civil Services Examination?

Answer. The Civil Services Examination (CSE) is divided into two parts: the Civil Services (Preliminary) Examination (CSP) and the Civil Services (Main) Examination (CSE) (Written and Interview).

How are the Question Papers for the Civil Services (Main) Examination structured?

Answer. The exam’s question papers are of the traditional (essay) form. Each paper will take three hours to complete.

What are the Cut-off Marks for the compulsory language Papers?

Answer. The minimal qualifying requirements for each of the two qualifying papers, English and Indian Languages, are now set at 25% in the Examination Rules.

UPSC 2022 Exam Highlights | Civil Services Examination

Name of the ExamUPSC Civil Services Examination, 2022
Conducted byUnion Public Service Commission
Exam FrequencyAnnual
Mode of the ExamPen and Paper Mode/Offline
Test CentresAcross Nation
Exam Stages03 Stages- Preliminary Exam, Main Exam, and Personality Test
Application Fee100/-
Official Website

Important Dates for UPSC CSE 2022 | UPSC Notification 2022

Release of UPSC Notification 202202.02.2022
UPSC Online Registration for UPSC CSE 2022 (Begins on)02.02.2022
Deadline to Apply for UPSC CSE 202222.02.2022
UPSC CSE Prelims 2022 Exam05.06.2022 (Sunday)
UPSC CSE Prelims 2022 ResultJuly
UPSC Exam Date 2022- CSE Mains Exam16.09.2022

Important Links:

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