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UPSC Syllabus 2024 – Prelims, Mains and Interview – Updated Syllabus For 2024

Management of studies during UPSC the Civil Services Examination is very critical. To properly plan and manage the studies it is essential to understand the syllabus. The Syllabus is the gateway to UPSC Prelims and Mains examinations. Syllabus provides the aspirant with the scope of the topics to be covered. The aspirants should channelize all their endeavors well to satisfies the needs of the examination. In such a scenario, the Syllabus copy guides the aspirants to follow the correct and required path.

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Benefits of Understanding the Syllabus: 

  • When the aspirants analyse syllabus, they get know the common topics to be covered for Prelims and Mains Examinations. These points can be studied integrating the Prelims and Mains scope.
  • This not only eases the preparation but also saves valuable time.
  • If an aspirant keeps study without analysing the syllabus, he may end up studying relevant and useless material. In this process the aspirants will lose their most valuable time.
  • To avoid this analysing the UPSC Prelims and Mains syllabus before starting the preparation is crucial.

Download UPSC Syllabus In English 2024 PDF – Click here
Download UPSC Syllabus In Hindi 2024 PDFClick here


  • Among the three stages of the UPSC exam, the first stage is the Preliminary Exam.
  • It comprises two papers of 200 marks each containing objective-type multiple-choice questions.
  • The time allotted to attempt each exam is 2 hours which needs to be mandatorily attempted by the candidates.
  • The candidates need to score qualifying marks to clear the cut-off.
  • The Prelims consists of two papers of 200 marks each.
  • Paper 1 consists of the General studies syllabus.
  • Paper-2 (CSAT) in the Civil Services (Preliminary) Examination is a qualifying paper with minimum qualifying marks fixed at 33%.
  • The question papers will be set in both Hindi and English.

You can also read: IAS Full Form

IAS Prelims exam details:

ExamTotal marksDurationNo. of questionsNegative MarkingNatureRequired marks to qualify
GS 12002 hours100YesMarks counted for rankingCut-off prescribed by UPSC
GS 22002 hours80YesQualifying only33% (66/200)

Prelims General Studies Paper-1 Syllabus:

  1. Current events of national and international importance.
  2. History of India and Indian National Movement.
  3. Indian and World Geography-Physical, Social, Economic Geography of India and the World.
  4. Indian Polity and Governance – Constitution, Political System, Panchayati Raj, Public Policy, Rights Issues, etc.
  5. Economic and Social Development – Sustainable Development, Poverty, Inclusion, Demographics, Social Sector initiatives, etc.
  6. General issues on Environmental Ecology, Biodiversity and Climate Change- that do not require subject specialization.
  7. General Science.

Prelims General Studies Paper-2 (CSAT) Syllabus:

  1. Comprehension.
  2. Interpersonal skills including communication skills;
  3. Logical reasoning and analytical ability.
  4. Decision-making and problem-solving.
  5. General mental ability.
  6. Basic numeracy (numbers and their relations, orders of magnitude, etc.) (Class X level)
  7. Data interpretation (charts, graphs, tables, data sufficiency, etc. – Class X level).
  8. English language comprehension skills – Class X level.

General Studies MAINS SYLLABUS:

  • Candidates who qualify Preliminary exam are called for the Main exam. 
  • The UPSC mains exam is conducted in 2 parts: – qualifying papers and merit exams. 
  • There are a total of 9 papers in the Mains exam. Every paper is of 3 hours and extra 30 minutes extra is given to blind students.
  • Paper A and Paper B are 300 marks each and the remaining papers are 250 marks each.
  • The questions in Mains are of the subjective type and can be written in either Hindi or English language.

You can also read: IPS Full Form

UPSC Mains Exam pattern: –

PaperSubjectDurationTotal marksTime Allotted
Paper ACompulsory Indian language3 hours3003 hours
Paper BEnglish3 hours3003 hours
Paper IEssay3 hours2503 hours
Paper-IIGeneral Studies I3 hours2503 hours
Paper IIIGeneral Studies II3 hours2503 hours
Paper IVGeneral Studies III3 hours2503 hours
Paper VGeneral Studies IV3 hours2503 hours
Paper VIOptional I3 hours2503 hours
Paper VIIOptional II3 hours2503 hours
Sub TotalWritten Test 1750 
 Personality Test  275 
 Grand Total 2025 

General Studies (Mains) Exam Syllabus: –

General Studies Paper – I (Indian Heritage and Culture, History and Geography of the World, and Society)

History – 

  • Salient aspects of Art Forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.
  • Modern Indian History from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present significant events, personalities, issues.
  • The Freedom Struggle – its various stages and important contributors/contributions from various parts of the country.
  • Post-independence consolidation and reorganisation within the country.
  • History of the world will include events from 18th century such as Industrial revolution, world wars, redrawal of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc. their forms and effect on the society.
  • Society –  Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India.
  • Role of women and women’s organisations, population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues, urbanisation, their problems and their remedies.
  • Effects of globalization on Indian society.
  • Social empowerment, communalism, regionalism & secularism.
  • Geography –  Salient features of world’s physical geography.
  • Distribution of key natural resources across the world (including South Asia and the Indian sub-continent); factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world (including India).
  • Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc., geographical features and their location, changes in critical geographical features (including water-bodies and polar ice caps) and, in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.
General Studies Paper – II (Governance, Constitution, Polity, Social Justice and International relations)
  • Indian Constitution – historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure
  • Function and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and challenges pertaining to federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein.
  • Separation of powers between various organs dispute redressal mechanisms and institutions.
  • Comparison of the Indian constitutional scheme with that of other countries.

Parliament and State Legislature – structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers & privileges and issues arising out of these.

  • Structure, organisation and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary.
  • Ministries and Departments of the Government; pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity.
  • Salient features of the Representation of People’s Act.
  • Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions and responsibilities of various Constitutional bodies.
  • Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies. Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.
  • Development processes and the development industry – the role of NGOs, SHGs, various groups and associations, donors, charities, institutional and other stake holders.
  • Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and the States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.
  • Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.
  • Issues relating to poverty and hunger.
  • Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance- applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures.
  • Role of civil services in a democracy.
  • International Relations – India and its neighbourhood relations – Bilateral, regional and global grouping and agreements involving India and/or affecting the India’s interests.
  • Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian Diaspora.
  • Important International institutions, agencies and fora – their structure and mandates.
General Studies Paper – III (Technology, Economic Development, Biodiversity, Environment, Security and Disaster Management)
  • Economy – Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.
  • Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.
  • Government Budgeting.
  • Major crops, cropping patterns in various parts of the country, different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints; e-technology in the aid of farmers

.Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices; Public Distribution System objectives, functioning, limitations, revamping; issues of buffer stocks and food security; Technology missions; economics of animal-rearing.

  • Food processing and related industries in India – scope and significance, location, upstream and downstream requirements, supply chain management.
  • Land reforms in India.
  • Effects of liberalization on the economy (post 1991 changes), changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth.
  • Infrastructure – Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.
  • Investment models (PPP etc.)
  • Science and Technology – developments and their applications and effects in everyday life.
  • Achievements of Indians in science & technology. Indigenisation of technology and developing new technology.
  • Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, Robotics, Nanotechnology, bio-technology and Issues relating to intellectual property rights.
  • Environment – Conservation, Environmental pollution and degradation, Environmental impact assessment, Disaster Management (Laws, Acts etc.)
  • Linkages between development and spread of extremism.
  • Role of external security through communication networks, role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges, Basics of cyber security; money-laundering and its prevention.
  • Security challenges and their management in border areas; linkages of organized crime with terrorism. Various Security forces and agencies and their mandates
General Studies Paper – IV (Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude)

This paper will include questions to test the candidates’ attitude and approach to issues relating to integrity, probity in public life and his problem solving approach to various issues and conflicts faced by him in dealing with society. Questions may utilise the case study approach to determine these aspects. The following broad areas will be covered.

  • Ethics and Human Interface; Essence, Determinants and Consequences of Ethics in Human action; Dimensions of Ethics; Ethics in private and public relationships.
  • Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; Role of family, society and educational institutions in inculcating values.
  • Attitude: Content, structure and function; its Influence and relation with thought and behavior; Moral and Political attitudes; Social influence and persuasion.
  • Aptitude and foundational values of Civil Service, Integrity Impartiality and non-partisanship, objectivity dedication to public service, empathy, tolerance and compassion towards the weaker sections.
  • Emotional Intelligence – Concepts, and their utilities and application in administration and governance.
  • Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and the world.
  • Public/Civil Service Values and Ethics in Public Administration: Status and problems; Ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; Laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; Accountability and ethical governance; Strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; Ethical Issues in international relations and funding; Corporate governance.
  • Probity in Governance: Concept of public service; Philosophical basis of governance and probity; Information sharing and transparency in government, Right to Information, Codes of ethics, Codes of Conduct, Citizen’s Charters, Work culture, Quality of service delivery, Utilization of public funds, Challenges of corruption.
  • Case Studies on above issues.

How to analyse the UPSC Syllabus?

  1. Download the Prelims and Mains syllabus from UPSC website Besides it can be easily obtained from any IAS institutes websites.
  2. Understand the UPSC Prelims and Mains Syllabus separately. Find out the topics from each subject which are common for prelims as well as mains.
  3. Start with Mains topics from General studies (GS1, GS2, GS3, GS4) Syllabus. Pick a topic from each of the General studies Papers of UPSC. Then check the Previous Year questions of Prelims and Mains asked on the particular topic. Aspirants should check the previous year’s questions from 2013 to 2023.
  4. After analysing each topic, the you can prepare a comprehensive note considering the Prelims and Mains coverage. Also keep adding the relevant points from current news to make your notes more valuable.
  5. The aspirants should read the relevant NCERTs and revise their notes multiple times. Particularly, a quick revision of the relevant books of history, polity, geography, and macroeconomics is a must. Revise your own notes, subject-wise. Complete their revision at least two to three times in these three months.


For the Mains phase of the IAS exam, an aspirant need to pick an Optional subject of their choice. UPSC provides a list of 48 optional subjects. Among the 48 subjects one subject have to be selected as Optional. The total marks allocated for the optional subject is 500 which can make a huge difference in the overall result of the aspirant. In order to study well and secure good marks in Mains exam and to get a good rank, the UPSC aspirants should carefully analyse and choose their Optional Subject. With well-planned strategies, you can easily score well in the Bengali literature. Interest should be the prime criteria for choosing any optional.

Optional exam Pattern

  • The aspirants have to appear for two optional papers of same subject which they have selected for IAS (UPSC CSE) Main Exam.
  • Each paper is of 250 marks, making a total of 500 marks.
  • Duration for each Optional mains paper is 3 hours.

Factors to be considered while choosing an optional Subject for UPSC Mains Exam: 

  1. Syllabus Coverage:  The aspirants should analyse the syllabus of the optional subject, to be chosen, in details. Considering the length of the Optional subjects and the General studies subjects to be covered.
  2. Familiarity with Subject: – Different aspirants come from different graduation streams. Choosing an optional which is completely out of familiarity will left the aspirants frustrated. The aspirants should consider their subjects of graduation and then decide the Optional subject.
  3. Availability of Resources: – Preparing for an Optional subject of 500 marks require a good amount resources for every topic. Besides the aspirants also needs to value – add content in the material. The aspirants should take into the consideration that how easily good study material is available for an optional subject on internet and offline mode.
  4. Level of Competition :- A few applicants feel a decent UPSC Optional subject is the one that has a high achievement ratio as far as various aspirants are appearing. Nonetheless, it is just incompletely evident. More than all the other things, your answer copy will be assessed based only on your answer’s understandability. Thus, pick a subject that you’re OK with.

Overlapping Syllabus: – An aspirant should consider the same topics that are to be covered from the Optional Syllabus and the General studies syllabus. The aspirants should choose the subject which have more overlapping topics. This will reduce the time to read the same topic and enhance the writing capability of the aspirant.

Civil Services Exam Syllabus For IAS Mains Optional Subjects Table

Agriculture SyllabusZoology Syllabus
Animal Husbandry & Veterinary Science SyllabusAssamese (Literature) Syllabus
Anthropology SyllabusBengali (Literature) Syllabus
Botany SyllabusBodo (Literature) Syllabus
Chemistry SyllabusDogri (Literature) Syllabus
Civil Engineering SyllabusGujarati (Literature) Syllabus
Commerce & Accountancy SyllabusHindi (Literature) Syllabus
Economics SyllabusKannada (Literature) Syllabus
Electrical Engineering SyllabusKashmiri (Literature) Syllabus
Geography SyllabusKonkani (Literature) Syllabus
Geology SyllabusMaithili (Literature) Syllabus
History SyllabusMalayalam (Literature) Syllabus
Law SyllabusManipuri (Literature) Syllabus
Management SyllabusMarathi (Literature) Syllabus
Mathematics SyllabusNepali (Literature) Syllabus
Mechanical Engineering SyllabusOdia (Literature) Syllabus
Medical Science SyllabusPunjabi (Literature) Syllabus
Philosophy SyllabusSanskrit (Literature) Syllabus
Physics SyllabusSanthali (Literature) Syllabus
Political Science & International Relations SyllabusSindhi (Literature) Syllabus
Psychology SyllabusTamil (Literature) Syllabus
Public Administration SyllabusTelugu (Literature) Syllabus
Sociology SyllabusEnglish (Literature) Syllabus
Statistics SyllabusUrdu (Literature) Syllabus

Best books for UPSC IAS Prelims and Mains Exam Preparation

UPSC Books for General Studies Booklist for UPSC Prelims & Mains

 Booklist for UPSC Prelims & Mains
HistoryNIOS course books for classes XI and XII on – Ancient India, Medieval India, Modern India, National Movement & Contemporary World and Culture of India. A History of Ancient & Early Medieval India by Upinder Singh. India’s Ancient Past by R.S. Sharma published by Oxford University Press. History of Medieval India (800–1700 AD) by Satish Chandra published by Orient Longman. History of Modern India by Bipin Chandra (2009 Edition)India’s Struggle for Independence by Bipin Chandra & Others. From Plassey to Partition and After by Sekhar Bandopadhyaya
World HistoryThe Story of Civilization, Part 2 by Arjun Dev, NCERT Contemporary World History for class XII (Old NCERT Book), Mastering Modern World History by Norman Lowe
GeographyCertificate Physical & Human Geography (Oxford) by Goh Cheng Leong XI Standard: (1) India – Physical Environment (2) Fundamentals of Physical Geography XII Standard: (1) India – People & Economy (2) Fundamentals of Human Geography School Atlas – Orient Black Swan
Social IssuesXI Standard NCERT on Indian Society (Chapters on Unity & Diversity and Population Issues), XII Standard NCERT (Chapters on Communalism, Secularism and Urban Issues such as Poverty, Housing, etc.)
Indian PolityConstitution of India at Work (Class XI) NCERT Publication, Indian Polity by Laxmikant, From Government to Governance by Kuldeep Mathur, Panchayati Raj in India by Kuldeep Mathur
Indian EconomyIndian Economic Development XI Standard NCERT, Indian Economy by Sanjiv Verma, Introductory Macro Economics XII Standard NCERT, Economics Dictionary published by Collins & Penguin
Ecology & EnvironmentXII Standard NCERT Book on Biology (Chapters pertaining to Ecology), India Year Book (Chapters on Environment).
Science & Technology  VIII, IX, X Standard NCERT books on Biology, The Hindu or Indian Express Newspaper, Monthly Magazine ‘Science Reporter for Science & Technology’
Ethics, Integrity & AptitudeEthics in Governance, ARC Report, Lexicon by Chronicle Publications, The Book on Ethics, Integrity & Aptitude published by Access Publication

Books for Public Administration Optional

Paper 1

  1. Chapter-I: Introduction Mohit Bhattacharya: New Horizons of Public Administration Nicholas Henry : Public Administration and Public Affairs Special Issues of Indian Journal of Public Administration
  2. Chapter-II: Theories of Administration D. Ravindra Prasad, V.S. Prasad and P. Satyanarayana: Administrative Thinkers D. Gvishiani Organisation and Management: A Critique of Western Theories.
  3. Chapter-III: Structure of Public Organisations: R.K. Jain : Public Sector Undertakings; and Mohit Bhattacharya : New Horizons of Public Administration
  4. Chapter-IV: Administrative Behaviour Paul Hersey : Organisational Behaviour OR Stephen P. Robbin : Organisational Behaviour
  5. Chapter-V: Accountability and Control: Mohit Bhattacharya : New Horizons of Public Administration Special Issues of Indian Journal of Public Administration on Accountability
  6. Chapter-VI: Administrative Law: Massey :Administrative Law OR M.P. Jain :Administrative Law
  7. Chapter-VII: Administrative Reforms: P.R. Dubbashi : Administrative Reforms G.E. Gaiden :Administrative Reforms
  8. Chapter-VIII: Comparative Public Administration: Ferrel Heady : Public Administration-A Comparative Perspective OR R.K. Arora : Comparative Public Administration
  9. Chapter-IX: Development Administration: Ferrel Heady : Public Administration – A Comparative Perspective OR R.K. Arora : Comparative Public Administration
  10. Chapter-X: Public Policy : IGNOU Lessons on Public Policy R. K. Sapra : Public Policy
  11. Chapter-XI: Personnel Administration: O Glenn :Stahl : Public Personnel Administration S. L. Goel : Personnel Administration in India.
  12. Chapter-XII: Financial Administration M. J. K. Thavaraj :Public Financial Administration OR G.S. Lal :Financial Administration in India IGNOU Lessons on Financial Administration

Paper 2 Indian Administration

  1. Chapter-I: Evolution of Indian Administration B.N. Puri Administrative History of India (Vol. I, II and III)
  2. Chapter-II: Constitutional Framework D. D. Basu An Introduction to the Constitution of India
  3. Chapter-III: Union Government and Administration A. Avasthi Central Administration
  4. Chapter-IV: State Government and Administration J.D. Shukla State Administration
  5. Chapter-V: District Administration T.N. Chaturvedi District Administration; and Special Issue of Indian Journal of Public Administration on District Administration
  6. Chapter-VI: Local Government S.R. Maheswari Local Government in India
  7. Chapter-VII: Public Sector in India R. K. Jain Public Sector Undertakings Annual Survey on Public Sector of Department of Public Enterprises
  8. Chapter-VIII: Public Services S.L. Goel Personnel Administration in India
  9. Chapter-IX: Control of Public Expenditure M. J. K. Thavaraj Financial Administration IGNOU Lessons on Financial Administration
  10. Chapter-X: Administrative Reforms P.R. Dubbashi Administrative Reforms S. R. Maheswari Administrative Reforms Special Issue of Indian Journal of Public Administration on Administrative Reforms
  11. Chapter-XI: Machinery for Planning A. Avasthi Central Administration
  12. Chapter-XII: Administration of Law-and-Order K. K. Sharma Law and Order Administration in India K. J. Guha Roy, District Policing
  13. Chapter-XIII: Welfare Administration Annual Reports of Department of Social Welfare
  14. Chapter-XIV: Major Issues in Indian Administration Special Issue of Indian Journal Public Administration on Indian Administration, Retrospect and Prospect and on Good Governance.

Books for Sociology Optional:

Paper 1

  1. Herton and Hunt, Sociology
  2. Mcgraw- Hill International, Singapore 1984
  3. Abrahamson Mark, Urban Sociology
  4. Prentice-Hall Inc, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1980
  5. Haris C. C., The Sociology Enterprises: A Discussion of Fundamental Concept
  6. St. Martin Press Inc., New York, 1980
  7. Wilson John, Introduction to Social Movements
  8. Basic Books, NY , 1998
  9. Hamilton , Malcom, B. The Sociology of Religion
  10. Routledge, London , 1995
  11. Williams, Malcom, Science and Social Science: An Introduction
  12. Routledge, London , 2000
  13. D.K.S. Roy, Social Development and the Empowerment of Mariginalised Groups: Perspectives and Strategies
  14. Sage, New Delhi – 2001
  15. Harris C.C., The Family
  16. Allen and Unwin, London – 1977
  17. Andreas Hess, Concept of Social Stratification, European and American Models
  18. Palgrave, Houndmills, NY , 2001
  19. Giddens, Anthony, Capitalisation and Modern Social Theory
  20. University Press Cambridge, 1971
  21. Smelser, N.J.The Sociology of Economic Life
  22. Prentice Hall, New Delhi – 1988
  23. Haralombos, M, and Heald, R,M. Sociology : Themes and Perspectives
  24. Randall Collins, Theoretical Sociology
  25. Harcourt Brace and Company, Florida, 1996
  26. Bottomore. T.B. Sociology : A GFuide of problem and Literature
  27. Allen and Unwin, London – 1972
  28. Etzioni, Amitali, Modern Organization
  29. Prentice Hall, NY, 1995
  30. Cuff, Sharrock, and Francis, Perrspective in Sociology
  31. Routledge, NY 1995

Paper 2

  1. Mandelbaum, David, Society in India
  2. Srinivas M N Caste in Modern India and Other Essays
  3. Asia Publishing House, Bombay -1962
  4. Srinivas M N Social Change in Modern India
  5. Berkeley,University of California Press 1966
  6. Srinivas and Shah, The Myth of the self sufficiency of the Indian Village
  7. Beteille Andre Sociology
  8. Beteille Andre, The idea of Natural, Inequality and other Essays
  9. Beteille Andre, Essay in Contemporary Sociology
  10. Beteille Andre, Social Inequality of Indian Penguine
  11. Singh Yogender Cultural Change in India
  12. Singh Yogender, Modernization of Indian Tradition
  13. Thompson Press, New Delhi – 1973
  14. Unnithan T K , Indra Dev and Singh, Y, (eds) Towards a Sociology of Culture in India
  15. Gupta, Dipasnkar, Interrograting Caste
  16. Shah A M Family in Contempory India
  17. Orient Longman, New Delhi – 2001
  18. Chandrani and Chandrani, Essay in Rural Sociology
  19. Desai, Neera, and Krishnaraj, Women and Society in India
  20. Singer Milton and Cohen B.S. Structure and chasnge in Indian Society
  21. Weener Grin Foundation for Anthropological Research 1968
  22. Sharma K L (ed) Sociology Inequalities in Indian, Profiles of Caste Class, Power and Social Mobility
  23. Rawat, Jaipur 19945
  24. Gallenter Masrc, Competing, Inequalities
  25. Oxford, NY 1998
  26. Joshi, P C Sociol Science and Development: Quest for Relevance
  27. Hasr-Anand Publication, Delhi 1995

Books for History Optional:

Booklist for UPSC History Optional

  1. NCERT (Class IX to XII)
  2. NIOS/IGNOU Notes
  3. India’s Ancient Past by R. S. Sharma.
  4. History of Medieval India: From 647 A.D. to the Mughal Conquest by Satish Chandra.
  5. History of Modern India by Bipan Chandra.
  6. India’s Struggle For Independence by Bipan Chandra.
  7. Indian Art and Culture by Nitin Singhania.
  8. A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century by Upinder Singh
  9. From Plassey to Partition and After A History of Modern India by Sekhar Bandyopadhyay
  10. A Comprehensive History of Medieval India: From Twelfth to the Mid-Eighteenth Century by Farooqui Salma Ahmed
  11. Contemporary India: Economy, Society, Politics by Neera Chandhoke
  12. A History of Modern World by Jain and Mathur
  13. Mastering Modern World History by Norman Lowe

Books for Philosophy Optional:

Paper 1

  1. W. T. Stace: A Critical History of Greek Philosophy (Plato and Aristotle).
  2. Copleston: A History of Philosophy (Relevant Chapters from volume I, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX & XI).
  3. Anthony Kenny: A New History of Western Philosophy. OUP Oxford.
  4. Datta & Chatterjee: An Introduction to Indian Philosophy. Rupa Publishing.
  5. C. D. Sharma: A Critical Survey of Indian Philosophy. MLBD.
  6. Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy.

Paper 2

  1. John Hick: Philosophy of Religion.
  2. Michael B. Wilkinson: Philosophy of Religion: An Introduction.
  3. O. P. Gauba: Social & Political Philosophy.
  4. Political Theory, An Introduction. Edited By Rajeev Bhargava & Ashok Acharya.
  5. Oxford Dictionary of Politics.

Books for Philosophy Optional

Paper 1

  1. W. T. Stace: A Critical History of Greek Philosophy (Plato and Aristotle).
  2. Copleston: A History of Philosophy (Relevant Chapters from volume I, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX & XI).
  3. Anthony Kenny: A New History of Western Philosophy. OUP Oxford.
  4. Datta & Chatterjee: An Introduction to Indian Philosophy. Rupa Publishing.
  5. C. D. Sharma: A Critical Survey of Indian Philosophy. MLBD.
  6. Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy.

Paper 2

  1. John Hick: Philosophy of Religion.
  2. Michael B. Wilkinson: Philosophy of Religion: An Introduction.
  3. O. P. Gauba: Social & Political Philosophy.
  4. Political Theory, An Introduction. Edited By Rajeev Bhargava & Ashok Acharya.
  5. Oxford Dictionary of Politics.

Books for Commerce and Accountancy Optional:

Books for Commerce optional Paper I

  1. Accounting Corporate Accounting – Naseem Ahmed
  2. Accounting Standards- D. S. Rawat
  3. Auditing Students’ Guide to Auditing- Aruna Jha
  4. Income Tax book by- V.K. Singhania or Girish Ahuja
  5. Cost Accounting; Theory & Problems- Maheshwari & Mittal
  6. Financial Management
  7. Taxation- Income Tax, Service Tax & VAT
  8. Financial Management; Text and Problems- Khan and Jain
  9. Financial Markets & Institutions
  10. Indian Financial System- M.Y. Khan
  11. Financial Institutions & Markets- L.M. Bhole

Books for Commerce optional Paper II

  1. Human Resource Management- C.B. Gupta
  2. Industrial Relations- T.N. Chabra and R.K. Suri
  3. Dynamics of Industrial Relations- C.B. Mamoria and Satish Mamoria
  4. Human Resource Management- K. Aswathappa
  5. Organisation Theory and Behaviour- B.P. Singha and T.N. Chabra
  6. Organization Behaviour- L.M. Prasad

UPSC Books for Political Science:

Books For Political Science Paper I

  1. An Introduction To Constitution- D.D. Basu
  2. An Introduction To Political Theory- O.P Gauba
  3. Fifty Major Political Thinkers- Ian Adams And R W Dyson
  4. A History Of Political Thought: Plato To Marx – Subrata Mukherjee And Sushila Ramaswamy
  5. An Oxford Companion To Politics In India – Niraja Gopal Jayal And Pratap Bhanu Mehta
  6. Foundations Of Indian Political Thought- V.R Mehta
  7. A New Look At Modern Indian History- B.L Grover And Alka Mehta
  8. India’s Struggle For Independence – Bipan Chandra
  9. Indian Government And Politics – B L Fadia

Books For Political Science Paper-II

  1. India’s Foreign Policy – V P Dutt
  2. International Organisations- Spectrum Books Publication
  3. International Relations – V N Khanna
  4. Challenge And Strategy: Rethinking India’s Foreign Policy- Rajiv Sikri
  5. Does The Elephant Dance? Contemporary Indian Foreign Policy- David M. Malone
  6. Global Politics- Andrew Heywood
  7. MPS-004 Comparative Politics: Issues And Trends By Expert Panel Of GPH

UPSC Books for International Relations:

  1. Books for Paper I

    1. An Introduction To Constitution by D.D. Basu
    2. An Introduction To Political Theory by O.P Gauba
    3. Fifty Major Political Thinkers by Ian Adams And R W Dyson
    4. A History Of Political Thought: Plato To Marx by Subrata Mukherjee And Sushila Ramaswamy
    5. An Oxford Companion To Politics In India by Niraja Gopal Jayal And Pratap Bhanu Mehta
    6. Foundations Of Indian Political Thought by V.R Mehta
    7. A New Look At Modern Indian History by B.L Grover And Alka Mehta
    8. India’s Struggle for Independence by Bipan Chandra
    9. Indian Government And Politics by B L Fadia

    Books for Paper II

    1. India’s Foreign Policy by V P Dutt
    2. International Organisations by Spectrum Books Publication
    3. International Relations by V N Khanna
    4. Challenge And Strategy: Rethinking India’s Foreign Policy by Rajiv Sikri
    5. Does The Elephant Dance? Contemporary Indian Foreign Policy by David M. Malone
    6. Global Politics by Andrew Heywood

    Books for Maths Optional

    Books for Mathematics Paper I

    1. Linear Algebra – K.C. Prasad, K B Datta
    2. Calculus – Shanti Narayan Integral Calculus
    3. Differential Calculus
    4. Vector Calculus
    5. Analytic Geometry – Shanti Narayan, HC Sinha, DK Jha and Sharma
    6. Ordinary Differential EQs:- MD Raising Lumina, Golden series-NP Bali
    7. Dynamics, Statistics, and Hydrostatics – M.Ray
    8. Vector analysis – Shanti Narayan

    Books for UPSC Maths Optional Syllabus Paper II

    1. Algebra – K C Prasad, KB Datta
    2. Real Analysis – Shanti Narayan, Royden
    3. Complex Analysis – GK Ranganath
    4. Linear Programming – SD Sharma
    5. Partial Diff.eqs. – Singhania
    6. Numerical analysis and Computer Prog. – V. Rajaraman, SS Shastri
    7. Mechanics & Fluid dynamics – AP Mathur, Azaroff Leonid

    Books for Geography Optional Booklist

    Paper 1

    1. A Geography by Population – R.C. Chandna
    2. Agricultural Geography – Majid Husain
    3. Climatology – D.S.Lal
    4. Economic and Social Geography – Made Simple – R.Knowles & J.Wareing
    5. Economic Geography- Hartshorn & Truman A
    6. Environmental Awareness – R.C.Chandna
    7. Environmental Geography – Savindra Singh
    8. Environmental Geography – H M Saxena
    9. General Climatology – Critchfield
    10. Geomorphology – Savindra Singh
    11. Human Geography -Majid Husain
    12. Oceanography- Sharma & Vatal, NCERT
    13. Evolution of Geographic Thought-Majid Husain
    14. Physical Geography – Made Simple – Richard H Bryant
    15. Physical Geography – Savindra Singh
    16. Introducing Physical Geography – Alan Strahler
    17. Physical Geography in Diagrams -Bunnett
    18. Political Geography -R.D.Dixit
    19. Principles of Geomorphology-W.D. Thornbury
    20. Regional Planning in India – Chand & Puri
    21. Urbanization & Urban Systems in India- R. Ramachandran

    Paper 2

    1. A Geography of India -Gopal Singh
    2. Agriculture Geography – Majid Husain
    3. Certificate Physical and Human Geography – Goh Cheng Leong
    4. Economic and Commercial Geography of India – C.B. Mamoria
    5. Economic and Commercial Geography of India – Sharma & Coutinho
    6. Economical and Commercial Geography of India – C.B. Mamoria
    7. Environmental Awareness – R.C.Chandna
    8. Environmental Geography – Savinder Singh
    9. Environmental Geography – Saxena
    10. Geography of India – Majid Husain
    11. Geography of Population- R.C.Chandna
    12. Hindu’s Survey on Agriculture
    13. Human Geography – Majid Husain
    14. India Disasters Report
    15. Oxford School Atlas – Oxford
    16. Modern Political Geography of India – B.L. Sukhwal
    17. Regional Planning in India – Chand and Puri
    18. Urbanization and Urban Systems in India – R. Ramachandran
    19. Environmental Geography – Saxena

    Books for Anthropology Optional

    Anthropology books for UPSC optional:

    1. Physical Anthropology – P Nath
    2. Fossil Evidence – S Das
    3. Social Anthropology – DN Majumdar & T N Madan
    4. Indian Anthropology – Nadeem Hasnain
    5. Anthropology Theories – Makhan Jha

    You can also read: IAS Interview

UPSC 2024 Exam Highlights | Civil Services Examination

Name of the ExamUPSC Civil Services Examination, 2024
Conducted byUnion Public Service Commission
Exam FrequencyAnnual
Mode of the ExamPen and Paper Mode/Offline
Test CentresAcross Nation
Exam Stages03 Stages- Preliminary Exam, Main Exam, and Personality Test
Application Fee100/-
Official Website

Important Dates for UPSC CSE 2024 | UPSC Notification 2024

Release of UPSC Notification 202414/02/2024
UPSC Online Registration for UPSC CSE 2023 (Begins on)14/02/2024
Deadline to Apply for UPSC CSE 202429/02/2024 – 6:00 pm
UPSC CSE Prelims 2024 Exam26/05/2023 (Sunday)
UPSC CSE Prelims 2024 ResultJuly
UPSC Exam Date 2024- CSE Mains Exam20 September 2024 (days)

UPSC Posts – 3 Types of Civil Services

  • All India Civil Services
  • Indian Administrative Service (IAS)
  • Indian Police Service (IPS)
  • Indian Forest Service (IFoS)
  • Group ‘A’ Civil Services
    • Indian Foreign Service (IFS)
    • Indian Audit and Accounts Service (IAAS)
    • Indian Civil Accounts Service (ICAS)
    • Indian Corporate Law Service (ICLS)
    • Indian Defence Accounts Service (IDAS)
    • Indian Defence Estates Service (IDES)
    • Indian Information Service (IIS)
    • Indian Ordnance Factories Service (IOFS)
    • Indian Communication Finance Services (ICFS)
    • Indian Postal Service (IPoS)
    • Indian Railway Accounts Service (IRAS)
    • Indian Railway Personnel Service (IRPS)
    • Indian Railway Traffic Service (IRTS)
    • Indian Revenue Service (IRS)
    • Indian Trade Service (ITS)
    • Railway Protection Force (RPF)
  • Group ‘B’ Civil Services
    • Armed Forces Headquarters Civil Service
    • DANICS
    • DANIPS
    • Pondicherry Civil Service
    • Pondicherry Police Service

All India Services

Indian Administrative Service (IAS)One of the three All India Services is the Indian Administrative Service. The Indian Administrative Service (IAS) is the permanent arm of the Indian government and state governments. The IAS cadre is in charge of formulating and enforcing government policies. The Indian Administrative Service (IAS) is India’s administrative civil service that serves the whole country. The IAS probationers start their training at Mussoorie’s LBSNAA.
Indian Police Service (IPS)Indian Police Service is the one among the three All India Services. IPS officers are trained at Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel National Police Academy in Hyderabad. The IPS officers occupy senior positions in Police service. The IPS officers occupy senior positions in RAW, IB, Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) etc.
Indian Foreign Service (IFS)IFS officials are trained at LBSNAA before moving on to the Foreign Service Institute in New Delhi. It is one of the most popular civil services in the Group ‘A’ category. IFS officers are in charge of India’s international affairs. High Commissioners, Ambassadors, India’s Permanent Representative to the United Nations, and Foreign Secretaries are all possible career paths for IFS officers. A candidate who is accepted into the IFS programme is not eligible to return for the Civil Service Exam.
Indian Forest Service (IFoS)One of the three All India Services is the Indian Forest Service (IFoS). Director General (DG) of Forests is the highest rank held by IFoS personnel serving in the Central Government. Principal Chief Conservator of Forests is the highest rank held by IFoS personnel working for the State Government. The Ministry of Environment, Forests, and Climate Change oversees the Indian Forest Service Cadre. Officers of the IFoS have the chance to work for a variety of organisations, including the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO).
Indian Revenue ServicesOn a macro level, the Indian Revenue Services include functions such as revenue collection, development, and allocation, as well as security and governance. The officer in charge of this service is in charge of tax administration, as well as the creation and execution of tax and revenue policies, as well as revenue investigations.
Indian Railway Traffic ServicesCandidates who are selected for this civil service must complete a Railway Foundation Course as well as specialised training in order to serve the Indian railways in important managerial positions. This service’s executives are in charge of passenger transportation as well as the manufacture and sale of goods and output via rail transportation.
Indian Audit and Accounts Service (IA&AS)One of the most popular Group ‘A’ civil services is the IA&AS. They begin their education at the NAAA in Shimla. The Comptroller and Auditor General is in charge of this group (CAG). The financial auditing of the Central Government, State Governments, and Public Sector Undertakings is performed by this cadre (PSUs).
Indian Civil Accounts Service (ICAS)This cadre is part of the civil service’s Group ‘A’. They are overseen by the Ministry of Finance. The Controller General of Accounts is in charge of this group. They received their education at the Faridabad-based National Institute of Financial Management (NIFM) and the Institute of Government Accounts and Finance.
Indian Corporate Law Service (ICLS)The Ministry of Corporate Affairs is in charge of Group ‘A’ services. The primary goal of this service is to oversee India’s corporate sector. Probationary officers are trained at the ICLS Academy, which is located on the Indian Institute of Corporate Affairs’ Manesar campus (IICA). Officers of the ICLS would get significant legal, economic, financial, and accounting training.
Indian Defence Accounts Service (IDAS)The Ministry of Defense is in charge of this group. Officers in this cadre receive their first training at CENTRAD in New Delhi. Then there’s NIFM, or the National Academy Of Defence Financial Management Institute, which is based in Pune. Border Roads Organisation (BRO), Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), and Ordnance Factories are the principal employers of IDAS cadre officers. The primary goal of this group is to audit defence accounts. The Controller General of Defence Accounts (CGDA) leads the service and also serves as Chief Accounts Officer to the heads of the DRDO, BRO, and Ordnance Factories.
Indian Information Service (IIS)This is the Group ‘A’ service, which is in charge of the Indian government’s media branch. This service’s principal role is to serve as a link between the government and the general public. The Ministry of Information and Broadcasting oversees IIS. The Indian Institute of Mass Communication provides first training for this cadre’s trainees (IIMC). Officers from this cadre serve for a variety of media organisations, including DD, PIB, and AIR.

New Batches
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Scholarship Test
Best IAS Coaching in Delhi

Indian Foreign Service ExamWhat is UPSC?
All About LBSNAA UPSC Exam Pattern
How to JoinCurrent Affairs For UPSC
IFS ExamIAS Exam Eligibility

Frequently Asked Questions:

Answer. UPSC is India’s central government organisation that administers exams such as the Civil Services Exam (CSE) to recruit candidates for key government positions such as IAS, IPS, and IFS. The UPSC selects candidates for both civil and military services.

Answer. A candidate who is a citizen of India, or a subject of Nepal, Bhutan, or Tibet who settled in India before January 1, 1962; candidate who is a Graduate Degree from a recognised University; candidate who is a minimum of 21 years of age and not more than 32 years of age are eligible for UPSC Exam.

Answer. Indian Administrative Services (IAS), Indian Police Services (IPS), Indian Foreign Services (IFS), Indian Revenue Services (IRS-IT), and Indian Railway Traffic Services (IRTS) are the many job profiles under UPSC Services.

Answer. Officially known as the Civil Services Examination (CSE), the IAS exam is held every year by the Union Public Service Commission, which is the principal recruiting agency (UPSC). The Indian Administrative Service (IAS) is the country’s permanent bureaucracy and is part of the executive branch.

Answer. Yes, it is possible to pass the IAS exam without taking any classes. However, ‘everyone’ may not be the case. It is contingent on his or her ability to self-study effectively. You can pass UPSC CSE without any classroom coaching if you are proficient at self-study.

Answer. The initial base monthly compensation for an IAS official is Rs. 56,100, with the highest income now being Rs. 2,50,000 for a Cabinet Secretary.

Answer. History, Geography, Political Science / Civics, Economics, General Science – Physics, Chemistry, and Biology, Environmental Science, and Sociology are among the UPSC Prelims Subjects.

Answer. History, Geography, Politics, Economics, General Science – Physics, and Environmental Science are the basic subjects for UPSC.

Answer. The UPSC exam is one of India’s most difficult to pass, but it’s not impossible if you use the appropriate method. The UPSC exam is one of India’s most difficult to pass, but it’s not impossible if you use the appropriate method.

Answer. Yes, without couching, one year is sufficient for IAS preparation. You can pass this exam on your first attempt if you focus your studies. Preparing for UPSC is a full-time job in and of itself; you must put in at least 6-8 hours per day during your preparation.

Additional FAQs

Answer. Female applicants, Persons with Benchmark Disabilities (PwBD), and candidates belonging to the Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe groups are excused from paying the Examination Fee in all of the Commission’s examinations.

Answer. The Civil Services Examination (CSE) is divided into two parts: the Civil Services (Preliminary) Examination (CSP) and the Civil Services (Main) Examination (CSE) (Written and Interview).

Answer. The exam’s question papers are of the traditional (essay) form. Each paper will take three hours to complete.

Answer. The minimal qualifying requirements for each of the two qualifying papers, English and Indian Languages, are now set at 25% in the Examination Rules.