About Malayalam Language: –

Malayalam language is a member of the South Dravidian subgroup of the Dravidian language family. Malayalam is spoken mainly in India, where it is the official language of the state of Kerala and the union territory of Lakshadweep. It is also spoken by bilingual communities in contiguous parts of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. In the early 21st century, Malayalam was spoken by more than 35 million people.

Malayalam Syllabus Subject For UPSC

Malayalam is the language provided as a Literature Optional which focuses on the candidates’ understanding of the basic concepts of literature. Candidates who have studied the Malayalam literature can opt for it as an optional subject in the IAS (UPSC CSE) Mains Exam. Analytical and unconventional questions are appearing in previous papers so while preparing students should keep IAS Mains Malayalam Syllabus and previous papers for reference. The aspirants who are well versed with the Malayalam language and are familiar with the grammatical aspects can easily score high marks in this optional. 

Malayalam Syllabus Exam Pattern: –

The Malayalam language is one of the optional subjects offered for the 2 optional papers in the IAS (UPSC CSE) Main Exam. Each Malayalam optional paper consists of 250 marks. Duration for each Malayalam mains paper is 3 hours. With well-planned strategies, you can easily score well in the Malayalam literature. Interest should be the prime criteria for choosing any optional. The aspirants have to answer the questions from both the papers in Malayalam language.

Advantages of choosing Malayalam  

· Well defined syllabus and Less subjectivity

  • Direct and straightforward questions
  • Ample scope to score marks with diagrams
  • The inquiries in this subject are immediate and crucial.
  • Room for interpretation in the written answers
  • Quality of answers as there is no limitation to different kinds of answers.
  • Updation in the syllabus is rare

Disadvantages of choosing Malayalam

  • Subjective Nature of the answers can lead to less scoring at times if your views do not match with the evaluator.
  • Lack of resources
  • No syllabus overlaps with GS papers
  • Essay writing and interviews won’t pose much of a problem as the amount of reading will help with these.

(Answers must be written in Malayalam)
Section A

1—Early phase of Malayalam Language:
1.1 Various theories: Origin from proto Dravidian, Tamil, Sanskrit.
1.2 Relation between Tamil and Malayalam: Six nayas of A. R. Rajarajavarma.
1.3 Pattu School—Definition, Ramacharitam, later pattu works—Niranam works and
2—Linguistic features of :
2.1 Manipravalam—definition. Language of early manipravala works—Champu, Sandesakavya,
Chandrotsava, minor works. Later manipravala works—medieval Champu and Attakkatha.
2.2 Folklore—Southern and Northern ballads, Mappila songs.
2.3 Early Malayalam Prose—Bhashakautaliyam, Brahmandapuranam, Attaprakaram,
Kramadipika and Nambiantamil.
3—Standardisation of Malayalam :
3.1 Peculiarities of the language of Pana, Kilippattu and Tullal.
3.2 Contributions of indigenous and European missionaries to Malayalam.
3.3 Characteristics of contemporary Malayalam; Malayalam as administrative language.
Language of scientific and technical literature—media language.

Section B

4—Ancient and Medieval Literature :
4.1 Pattu—Ramacharitam, Niranam Works and Krishnagatha.
4.2 Manipravalam—early and medieval manipravala works including attakkatha and champu.
4.3 Folk Literature.
4.4 Kilippattu, Tullal and Mahakavya.
5—Modern Literature—Poetry :
5.1 Venmani poets and contemporaries.
5.2 The advent of Romanticism—Poetry of Kavitraya i.e., Asan, Ulloor and Vallathol.
5.3 Poetry after Kavitraya.
5.4 Modernism in Malayalam Poetry.
6—Modern Literature—Prose :
6.1 Drama.
6.2 Novel.
6.3 Short story.
6.4 Biography, travelogue, essay and criticism.


(Answers must be written in Malayalam)
Section A

Unit 1
1.1 Ramacharitam—Patalam 1.
1.2 Kannassaramayanam—Balakandam first 25 stanzas.
1.3 Unnunilisandesam—Purvabhagam 25 slokas including Prastavana.
1.4 Mahabharatham Kilippattu—Bhishmaparvam.
Unit 2
2.1 Kumaran Asan—Chintavisthayaya Sita.
2.2 Vailoppilli—Kutiyozhikkal.
2.3 G. Sankara Kurup—Perunthachan.
2.4 N. V. Krishna Variar—Tivandiyile pattu.
Unit 3
3.1 O. N. V.—Bhumikkoru Charamagitam.
3.2 Ayyappa Panicker—Kurukshetram.
3.3 Akkittam—Pandatha Messanthi.
3.4 Attur Ravivarma—Megharupan.

Section B

Unit 4
4.1 O. Chanthu Menon—Indulekha.
4.2 Thakazhy—Chemmin.
4.3 O. V. Vijayan—Khasakkinte Ithihasam.
Unit 5
5.1 M. T. Vasudevan Nair—Vanaprastham (Collection).
5.2 N. S. Madhavan—Higvitta (Collection).
5.3 C. J. Thomas—1128-il Crime 27.
Unit 6
6.1 Kuttikrishna Marar—Bharataparyatanam.
6.2 M. K. Sanu—Nakshatrangalute Snehabhajanam.
6.3 V. T. Bhatttathirippad—Kannirum Kinavum.