About Manipuri Language: –
Manipuri language is a Tibeto-Burman language spoken predominantly in Manipur, a north-eastern state of India. Smaller speech communities exist in the Indian states of Assam, Mizoram, and Tripura, as well as in Bangladesh and Myanmar (Burma). Manipuri has its own script, locally known as Meitei Mayek. Manipur state and its surround are the locus from which the Tibeto-Burman family spread and diversified, making the genetic assignment of the region’s languages very difficult.
Manipuri Syllabus Subject For UPSC
Manipuri is the language provided as a Literature Optional which focuses on the candidates’ understanding of the basic concepts of literature. Candidates who have studied the Manipuri literature can opt for it as an optional subject in the IAS (UPSC CSE) Mains Exam. Analytical and unconventional questions are appearing in previous papers so while preparing students should keep IAS Mains Manipuri Syllabus and previous papers for reference. The aspirants who are well versed with the Manipuri language and are familiar with the grammatical aspects can easily score high marks in this optional.
Manipuri Syllabus Exam Pattern: –
The Manipuri language is one of the optional subjects offered for the 2 optional papers in the IAS (UPSC CSE) Main Exam. Each Manipuri optional paper consists of 250 marks. Duration for each Manipuri mains paper is 3 hours. With well-planned strategies, you can easily score well in the Manipuri literature. Interest should be the prime criteria for choosing any optional. The aspirants have to answer the questions from both the papers in Manipuri language.
Advantages of choosing Manipuri
· Well defined syllabus and Less subjectivity
- Direct and straightforward questions
- Ample scope to score marks with diagrams
- The inquiries in this subject are immediate and crucial.
- Room for interpretation in the written answers
- Quality of answers as there is no limitation to different kinds of answers.
- Updation in the syllabus is rare
Disadvantages of choosing Manipuri
- Subjective Nature of the answers can lead to less scoring at times if your views do not match with the evaluator.
- Lack of resources
- No syllabus overlaps with GS papers
- Essay writing and interviews won’t pose much of a problem as the amount of reading will help with these.
Answers must be written in Manipuri.
- a) General characteristics of Manipuri Language and history of its development; its importance and status among the Tibeto-Burman Languages of North-East India; recent development in the study of Manipuri language; evolution and study of old Manipuri script.
- b) Significant features of Manipuri language :
- i) Phonology-Phoneme-vowels, consonants juncture, tone, consonant cluster and its occurrence, syllable-its structure, pattern and types.
- ii) Morphology : Word-class, root and its types; affix and its types; grammatical categories-gender, number, person, case, tense and aspects, process of compounding (samas and sandhi).
iii) Syntax : Word order : types of sentences, pharse and clause structures.
- a) Literary History of Manipuri :
Early period (upto 17th century)-Social and cultural background; Themes, diction and style of the works.
Medieval period (18th and 19th century)- Social, religious and political background; Themes, diction and style of the works.
Modern period-Growth of major literary forms; change of Themes, diction and style.
- b) Manipuri Folk Literature :
Legend, Folktale, Folksong, Ballad, Proverb and Riddle.
- c) Aspects of Manipuri Culture :
Pre-Hindu Manipuri Faith; Advent of Hinduism and the process of syncreticism.
Performing arts-Lai Haraoba, Maha Ras; Indegenous games-Sagol Kangjei, Khong Kangjei, Kang.
Answers must be written in Manipuri.
Old and Medieval Manipuri Literature
- a) Old Manipuri Literature
- O. Bhogeswar Singh (Ed.) :
- M. Gourachandra Singh (Ed.) : Thawanthaba Hiran
- N. Khelchandra Singh (Ed.) : Naothingkhong Phambal Kaba
- M. Chandra Singh (Ed.) :
- b) Medieval Manipuri Literature :
- M. Chandra Singh (Ed.) : Samsok Ngamba
- R.K.Snahal Singh (Ed.) : Ramayana Adi Kanda
- N. Khelchandra SIngh (Ed.) : Dhananjoy Laibu Ningba
- O. Bhogeswar Singh (Ed.) : Chandrakirti Jila Changba
Modern Manipuri Literature :
- a) Poetry and Epic :
(I) Poetry :
- a) Manipuri Sheireng (Pub) Manipuri Sahitya Parishad, 1988 (ed.)
Kh. Chaoba Singh : Pi Thadoi, Lamgi Chekla Amada, Loktak
Dr. L. Kamal Singh : Nirjanata, Nirab Rajani
- Minaketan Singh : Kamalda, Nonggumlakkhoda
- Samarendra Singh : Ingagi Nong, Mamang Leikai Thambal Satle
- Nilakanta Singh : Manipur, Lamangnaba
Shri Biren : Tangkhul Hui
Th. Ibopishak : Anouba Thunglaba Jiba
- b) Kanchi Sheireng. (Pub) Manipur University 1998 (ed.)
Dr. L. Kamal Singh : Biswa-Prem
Shri Biren : Chaphadraba Laigi Yen
Th. Ibopishak : Norok Patal Prithivi
(II) Epic :
- A. Dorendrajit Singh : Kansa Bodha
- H. Anganghal Singh : Khamba-Thoibi Sheireng (San-Senba, Lei Langba, Shamu Khonggi Bichar)
(III) Drama :
- S. Lalit Singh : Areppa Marup
- G.C. Tongbra : Matric Pass
- A. Samarendra : Judge Sahebki Imung
- b) Novel, Short-story and Prose :
(I) Novel :
- Dr. L. Kamal Singh : Madhabi
- H. Anganghal Singh : Jahera
- H. Guno Singh : Laman
- Pacha Meetei : Imphal Amasung, Magi Ishing, Nungsitki Phibam
(II) Short-story :
- a) Kanchi Warimacha (Pub) Manipur University 1997 (ed.)
R.K. Shitaljit Singh : Kamala Kamala
M.K. Binodini : Eigi Thahoudraba Heitup Lalu
Kh. Prakash : Wanom Shareng
- b) Parishadki Khangatlaba Warimacha (Pub) Manipuri Sahitya Parishad 1994 (ed.)
- Nilbir Shastri : Loukhatpa
R.K. Elangba : Karinunggi
- c) Anouba Manipuri Warimacha (Pub) The Cultural Forum Manipur 1992 (ed.)
- Kunjamohon Singh : Ijat Tanba
- Dinamani : Nongthak Khongnang
(III) Prose :
- a) Warenggi Saklon [Due Part (Pub) The Cultural Forum Manipur 1992 (ed.)
Kh. Chaoba Singh : Khamba-Thoibigi Wari Amasung Mahakavya
- b) Kanchi Wareng (Pub) Manipur University 1998 (ed.)
- Manisana Shastri : Phajaba
Ch. Manihar Singh : Lai-Haraoba
- c) Apunba Wareng. (Pub) Manipur University, 1986 (ed.)
Ch. Pishak Singh : Samaj Amasung, Sanskriti