## Mathematics Syllabus Subject For UPSC

Maths has always been a scoring subject for UPSSC Mains optional. If an aspirant learns how to present a solution in steps highlighting the main points one can easily predict the score in that question. Since the questions are not subjective or opinion based but factual it is not up to the examiner to give marks if content and presentation are both up to the mark.

Once the aspirants understand approach and logic of writing steps, they can easily score good marks in this subject. Anyone with Maths as a subject at undergraduate level can choose this subject as an optional.

**Advantages of taking Maths as an Optional Subject in UPSC Mains Exams**

- The UPSC maths optional syllabus is well structured and balanced. It gives emphasis on theorems and their proofs as well as the application part.
- The syllabus is not linked to current affairs, so once you are done with the syllabus you don’t have to constantly update your knowledge, you just need to revise.
- The syllabus of Maths Optional for UPSC is the static curriculum.
- The things to remember in maths is only about 10% of the entire syllabus which anyway one ends up keeping in mind because of practice and usage in majority of the questions.
- The aspirants can easily cover most types of possible questions that can be asked from that topic.

**Myths about Maths optional: -**

- There is a myth that maths takes more time to cover.
- Even though the syllabus is very vast, the aspirants need not to spend much time on multiple reading. Once they covered any topic, they have to only regularly revise that same portion.

**Tips to score high in Maths Optional**

The civil service aspirants should practice maths problems a lot and avoid silly mistakes to score high. Here, we have provided some focus areas for aspirants to score high in Maths Optional subject in UPSC Mains Exam.

In maths subject, presentation matters a lot along with the right solution. So, write the solution neatly and in proper steps. Do not skip any important step in hurry or do not haphazardly write the solution.**Presentation: -**Practicing makes you faster in problem solving and helps you improve speed and accuracy which ultimately will help you score high in exam. Practising a lot will help you in avoiding such mistakes.**Practice: -**The aspirants should focus on revision. They should be kept aside just before the exam ends so that you can cross check your answers and make correction if required.**Revision: -**To score good marks in Maths optional subject the aspirants should understand the logical flow and build concepts strong. This will help you solve all types of questions as you will be able to apply logic in exam and won’t skip any important step of the solution.**Logic: -**: - The aspirants with Maths as an optional subject should learn formulae by heart. Formulae are like the backbone of maths. So, prepare a formula sheet with all the formulae in it so that it is easy for you to revise at any time, any place.**Formulae**

**Mathematics Syllabus Exam Pattern: -**

# In UPSC Mains Exam, the Optional Subject has 2 Papers – Paper I & Paper II. Each paper of the optional subject is of 250 marks, making it a total of 500 marks.

# The syllabus of both the papers of Maths optional as per UPSC Official Notification is as follows:

**Paper I Syllabus:**

(1) Linear Algebra:

Vector spaces over R and C, linear dependence and independence, subspaces, bases, dimensions, Linear transformations, rank and nullity, matrix of a linear transformation. Algebra of Matrices; Row and column reduction, Echelon form, congruence’s and similarity; Rank of a matrix; Inverse of a matrix; Solution of system of linear equations; Eigenvalues and eigenvectors, characteristic polynomial, Cayley-Hamilton theorem, Symmetric, skew-symmetric, Hermitian, skew-Hermitian, orthogonal and unitary matrices and their eigenvalues.

(2) Calculus:

Real numbers, functions of a real variable, limits, continuity, differentiability, mean-value theorem, Taylor’s theorem with remainders, indeterminate forms, maxima and minima, asymptotes; Curve tracing; Functions of two or three variables; Limits, continuity, partial derivatives, maxima and minima, Lagrange’s method of multipliers, Jacobian. Riemann’s definition of definite integrals; Indefinite integrals; Infinite and improper integral; Double and triple integrals (evaluation techniques only); Areas, surface and volumes.

(3) Analytic Geometry:

Cartesian and polar coordinates in three dimensions, second degree equations in three variables, reduction to Canonical forms; straight lines, shortest distance between two skew lines, Plane, sphere, cone, cylinder, paraboloid, ellipsoid, hyperboloid of one and two sheets and their properties.

(4) Ordinary Differential Equations:

Formulation of differential equations; Equations of first order and first degree, integrating factor; Orthogonal trajectory; Equations of first order but not of first degree, Clairaut’s equation, singular solution. Second and higher order liner equations with constant coefficients, complementary function, particular integral and general solution. Section order linear equations with variable coefficients, Euler-Cauchy equation; Determination of complete solution when one solution is known using method of variation of parameters. Laplace and Inverse Laplace transforms and their properties, Laplace transforms of elementary functions. Application to initial value problems for 2nd order linear equations with constant coefficients.

(5) Dynamics and Statics:

Rectilinear motion, simple harmonic motion, motion in a plane, projectiles; Constrained motion; Work and energy, conservation of energy; Kepler’s laws, orbits under central forces. Equilibrium of a system of particles; Work and potential energy, friction, Common catenary; Principle of virtual work; Stability of equilibrium, equilibrium of forces in three dimensions.

(6) Vector Analysis:

Scalar and vector fields, differentiation of vector field of a scalar variable; Gradient, divergence and curl in cartesian and cylindrical coordinates; Higher order derivatives; Vector identities and vector equation. Application to geometry: Curves in space, curvature and torsion; Serret-Furenet's formulae. Gauss and Stokes’ theorems, Green's identities.

**Paper II Syllabus:**

(1) Algebra:

Groups, subgroups, cyclic groups, cosets, Lagrange’s Theorem, normal subgroups, quotient groups, homomorphism of groups, basic isomorphism theorems, permutation groups, Cayley’s theorem. Rings, subrings and ideals, homomorphisms of rings; Integral domains, principal ideal domains, Euclidean domains and unique factorization domains; Fields, quotient fields.

(2) Real Analysis:

Real number system as an ordered field with least upper bound property; Sequences, limit of a sequence, Cauchy sequence, completeness of real line; Series and its convergence, absolute and conditional convergence of series of real and complex terms, rearrangement of series. Continuity and uniform continuity of functions, properties of continuous functions on compact sets. Riemann integral, improper integrals; Fundamental theorems of integral calculus. Uniform convergence, continuity, differentiability and integrability for sequences and series of functions; Partial derivatives of functions of several (two or three) variables, maxima and minima.

(3) Complex Analysis:

Analytic function, Cauchy-Riemann equations, Cauchy's theorem, Cauchy's integral formula, power series, representation of an analytic function, Taylor’s series; Singularities; Laurent’s series; Cauchy’s residue theorem; Contour integration.

(4) Linear Programming:

Linear programming problems, basic solution, basic feasible solution and optimal solution; Graphical method and simplex method of solutions; Duality. Transportation and assignment problems.

(5) Partial Differential Equations:

Family of surfaces in three dimensions and formulation of partial differential equations; Solution of quasilinear partial differential equations of the first order, Cauchy’s method of characteristics; Linear partial differential equations of the second order with constant coefficients, canonical form; Equation of a vibrating string, heat equation, Laplace equation and their solutions.

(6) Numerical Analysis and Computer Programming:

Numerical methods: Solution of algebraic and transcendental equations of one variable by bisection, Regula-Falsi and Newton-Raphson methods, solution of system of linear equations by Gaussian Elimination and Gauss-Jorden (direct), Gauss-Seidel (iterative) methods. Newton’s (forward and backward) and interpolation, Lagrange’s interpolation. Numerical integration: Trapezoidal rule, Simpson’s rule, Gaussian quadrature formula. Numerical solution of ordinary differential equations: Eular and Runga Kutta methods. Computer Programming: Binary system; Arithmetic and logical operations on numbers; Octal and Hexadecimal Systems; Conversion to and from decimal Systems; Algebra of binary numbers. Elements of computer systems and concept of memory; Basic logic gates and truth tables, Boolean algebra, normal forms. Representation of unsigned integers, signed integers and reals, double precision reals and long integers. Algorithms and flow charts for solving numerical analysis problems.

(7) Mechanics and Fluid Dynamics:

Generalised coordinates; D’Alembert’s principle and Lagrange’s equations; Hamilton equations; Moment of inertia; Motion of rigid bodies in two dimensions. Equation of continuity; Euler’s equation of motion for inviscid flow; Stream-lines, path of a particle; Potential flow; Two-dimensional and axisymmetric motion; Sources and sinks, vortex motion; Navier-Stokes equation for a viscous fluid.