Indus valley Civilization (IVC) is one of the four extraordinary civilisations of the world. It prospered along the flood fields of Indus and Ghaggar-Hakra. Indus valley Civilization was spread across the western piece of South Asia that presently lies in India, Pakistan and Afghanistan.
The Mesopotamia Egypt, China and the Indus Valley Civilization, are viewed as the four extraordinary civilisations of the old world, the initial three (Mesopotamia, Egypt, and China) have been comprehensively contemplated and notable to everybody. However, the fourth and of equivalent significance, the considerably more complex Indus Valley Civilisation that prospered along the flood fields of Indus and Ghaggaar- Hakra is lost to human memory and till date stays astounding.
It was in the twentieth hundred years, the lost and failed to remember Indus Valley Civilization was rediscovered and recognized and given equivalent significance with the other three civilisations (Mesopotamia, Egypt, and China).
Seals from Indus Valley Civilization
- Indus Valley Civilisation created a ton of curios and fine arts.
- Indus Valley work of art arose during the final part of the third thousand years BCE (for example 2500 BC onwards)
- Thousands of seals have been found by archaeologists from the Harappan destinations.
Geography of Indus Valley Civilization
- Indus Valley Civilization was the biggest among the four civilisations of the world (Mesopotamia, Egypt, and China)
- Since the primary settlement was found along the banks of waterway Indus, the archaeologists named the civilisation as Indus Valley Civilization. Yet, running against the norm about 100 locales have been tracked down in the Indus Valley, while more than 500 destinations are found along the Ghaggar-Hakra River.
- Most of the archaeologists like to call them ‘Indus-Saraswati Civilization’ in view of the two stream frameworks, while others like to name them as Harappan Civilisation as the principal settlement was found around here (Harappa).
- Also, as per a few archaeologists, the locales along the Ghaggar-Hakra River are saved as they lie in the uninhabited desert
Size and Location of Indus Valley Civilization
- The Indus Valley Civilization was spread over an area of 1,260,000 sq. km over present day India, Pakistan, and Afghanistan
- 1056 Indus Valley Civilization urban communities and settlements have been found, of which 96 have been unearthed.
- The civilisation stretched out from Ghaggar-Hakra Valley in the east to Makran shoreline of Balochistan in the West, from Afghanistan in the Northeastern to Daimabad in Maharashtra in the South.
- Most of the settlements are for the most part situated in the expansive district of the Indus and Ghaggar-Hakra Rivers and their feeders.
- The major metropolitan places are Harappa, Mohenjodaro, Dholavira, Ganweriwala and Rakhigarhi.
Cities of Indus Valley Civilization
Numerous urban communities having a place with Indus Valley Civilization have been found and uncovered. Out of them, Archaeologists had the option to discover a portion of the significant urban communities having a place with Indus Valley Civilization.
The Below table gives the rundown of 7 significant urban areas of Indus Valley Civilization.
|City||State/Country||Facts about Indus Valley Civilization’s Cities|
|Mohenjodaro||Sindh Province, Pakistan||It was located on the right bank of River Indus.|
|Kalibangan||Rajasthan||It was located on the banks of Ghaggar River|
|Chanhudaro||Sindh Province, Pakistan||It was on the left bank of River Indus, to the South of Mohenjodaro|
|Lothal||Gujarat||It was located at the head of Gulf of Cambay|
|Surkotada||Gujarat||It was at the head of Rann of Kutch|
|Banawali||Haryana||It was situated on the banks of now-extinct Saraswati River|
|Dholavira||Gujarat||It was excavated in the Kutch district|
Population of Indus Valley Civilization
- The Population of Indus Valley Civilization was north of 5 million
- Most of the occupants of the civilisation were craftsmans and dealers.
- Majority of the number of inhabitants in Indus Valley Civilization lived in towns, it isn’t apparent as the towns might have been developed of destructible materials like mud or wood.
- Hence, it is hard to figure out the way of life and culture in these towns which have been lost throughout some undefined time frame suddenly.
- The Indus Valley Civilization was an exceptionally refined civilisation with a much-coordinated approach to everyday life.
- Despite being thickly populated, the urban communities were not turbulent, in contrast to contemporary urban areas of Mesopotamia or Egypt.
- Mohenjo-Daro estimating an area of around 300 hectares was the biggest city.
- Mohenjo-Daro could have had a 40000-in number populace.
- Allahdino was the littlest site in the Indus Valley Civilization.
Drainage System of Indus Valley Civilization
- They had progressed sterilization frameworks.
- People of the Indus Valley Civilization knew about and executed directing of water and the removal of waste stream before some other antiquated civilisation did.
- Even the Romans constructed water systems millennia after the fact.
- So high level was their water the board framework that they had separate channels covering the Harappan roads for wastewater and stormwater (water).
- The wastewater channels were underground, and had opening earthenware tops for the end goal of cleaning!
Town Planning of Indus Valley Civilization
- World’s originally arranged urban areas were tracked down in the Indus Valley Civilization.
- The urban areas of the civilisation were arranged in framework designs with roads crossing at right points.
- These wonders of metropolitan arranging were millennia more established than the time of Hippodamus of Miletus, thought about the ‘father of European metropolitan preparation’.
- The Indus Valley urban communities and towns had a rectangular network design.
- The central avenues were along the North-South heading and the auxiliary roads were along the East-West course.
- The roads converged at right points. This exact example is accepted to be attributable to strict or cosmic convictions.
- Apart from being all around arranged and having phenomenal waste frameworks, the Harappan urban communities and towns were additionally normalized.
- Almost every one of the spots exhumed are viewed as having a comparative construction and example.
- Even the blocks of the houses had comparable aspects!
- The roads found in Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa were just about as wide as 10.5 m.
- The more modest streets were no less than 1.5 m wide.
- Archaeologists accept that the wide roads bring up to advertise exercises alongside them.
- Harappan roads were cleared with consumed blocks to work with the simple development of bull trucks.
- The urban areas of the Indus Valley Civilization had channels running along the roads for the removal of seepage water.
- The urban areas of the Indus Valley Civilization could be partitioned into unmistakable areas.
- Each area had occupants who were participated in a specific calling.
World’s Oldest Signboard having a place with IVC
- A board with stone images/letters more than 30 cm in level in a wooden casing was found at Dholavira in 1999.
- Archaeologists accept this was the world’s most memorable billboard!
- It is remembered to have been put at the façade of the northern door of the city’s fortress.
Hygiene and Cleanliness in Indus Valley Civilization
- Hygiene was Top Priority
- The individuals of the Indus Valley Civilization drove an extremely sterile, perfect and sound life.
- The unearthings uncover this reality.
- A enormous number of public showers, the superb water the board framework, running water in each house, slick seepage frameworks and the underground wastewater frameworks all point out to the significance of cleanliness in Harappan life.
- Dustbins along the roads
- Even in those old times, the Indus Valley Civilization was far somewhat radical with regards to metro sense.
- There were dustbins put along the roads in Mohenjo-Daro!
- These were block holders, particularly for waste disposal.
- Every city had its own Great Bath
- Every city in the civilisation had something like one Great Bath.
- It is accepted that they could have had a strict reason.
Religion in Indus Valley Civilization
- Matridevi or Shakti is the Mother goddess
- Yoni love and Nature love existed.
- They loved trees like Peepal
- They likewise venerated Fire, called Havan Kund.
- Pashupati Mahadeva is known as the master of Animals
- The individuals of Indus Valley Civilisation did Animal love like Unicorn and bull.
No sanctuaries in the Indus Valley Civilization
- Archaeologists haven’t found any design looking like a sanctuary or a castle or any landmark.
- In truth, most other contemporary civilisations have a few focal landmarks.
- The shortfall of any castle or sanctuary in spite of designs like silos and public showers persuaded students of history to think that the Indus Valley society was a libertarian one.
- After IVC, significant Indian sanctuary engineering styles came into the image. Learn about these in the connected article.
Economic Facts of Indus Valley Civilization
- Indus valley civilisation depends on farming
- Trade and business thrived in this period.
- The Mesopotamian (Sumerian) recorders in the Middle Bronze Age allude oftentimes to a spot they call Meluhha. Meluhha was a conspicuous exchanging accomplice of the Sumerians and they imported lumber and midnight in high volumes.
- Sesame oil and extravagance things like lapis lazuli were additionally imported from Meluhha, which was without a doubt, the Indus Valley Civilization.
- A dockyard has been found at Lothal.
- There were products and imports.
- Production of cotton was there
- 16 was the unit of estimation
- Weights and measures existed in Harappan culture, and were seen at Lothal.
- The loads were made of limestone, steatite, and so forth and were normally cubical in shape.
|Major Things about Economy|
|Indus Valley Civilization were the world’s earliest cotton cultivatorsThe earliest hints of cotton on the planet were seen as here. The earliest proof for the utilization of cotton was found in Mehrgarh tracing all the way back to the 6th thousand years B.C.The Indus Valley ranchers were the initial ones to turn and wind around cotton.Cotton was additionally one of the product things.|
|Indus Valley had huge scope sea exchange relations with different civilisationsMany port-urban communities have been uncovered which demonstrates the presence of enormous scope oceanic exchange relations with different civilisations.Lothal could be the world’s most memorable dockyard.Other ports incorporate Allahdino, Suktagendor and Balakot.|
|Indus Valley Civilization had the world’s most memorable buttonsThe world’s most memorable buttons were tracked down here tracing all the way back to 2800 – 2600 B.C.Buttons were made from shells and some of them had openings penetrated in them for them to be appended to garments with strings.Buttons in the Indus Valley were involved more for their fancy worth as opposed to for utility.|
Society of Indus Valley Civilization
There were a lot of hints from the unearthings to assist us with figuring out significant data about the public activity of occupants of Indus Valley Civilization.
The beneath table gives data on Social Facts of Indus Valley Civilization
|Recreation activities||1. Hunting2. Fishing3. Clay modelling4. Bullfighting|
|Family Bonding||1. There was a very strong family bonding2. Children were taught the art of crafts making by their parents.|
|Household Decorations and Tools||1. Household decoration articles were either made of metals like Copper and Bronze or the decoration articles were made of pottery.2. Chairs were used|
|Kitchen Utensils||1. The utensils used were jars, dishes, vessels etc.2. The above items were made of earth and stone.|
|Clothing||1. Cotton clothes were used2. Woollen clothes were used|
|Cosmetics||1. Women used various cosmetics and face paint.|
|Food||1. Rice, wheat, barley, rice, milk2. Vegetables like sesame, peas3.Fruits like Date Palm4.Mutton, Fish etc|
|Literacy & Cleanliness||1. The extensive drainage system is an indication of the importance given to cleanliness.2. Letters engraved on seals is an indication of literacy|
Archeologists previously believed that they had coincidentally found urban communities of youngsters.
- When the urban communities of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro were first found, an enormous number of toys including dice, whistles and marbles were found.
- This drove the archeologists to imagine that most of the occupants of those urban communities were youngsters.
- Among the relics that have been found on locales like Mohenjo-Daro are toys and games.
- They have uncovered cubical dice having one to six openings (very like the ones we have today)!
- Other toys incorporate dirt figures of bullock trucks, turning tops, marbles, smaller than usual pots and utensils, and so on.
Art and Crafts in Indus Valley Civilization
- Art and create during the Indus Valley period were exceptionally complex.
- Their curios show an elevated degree of accomplishment as far as tasteful worth and the method utilized.
- Their product incorporates earthenware, bronze, copper and different metals.
- They were additionally specialists in globule making.
- This is a vital revelation since it shows the mastery of the Indus Valley civilisation in metal twisting and projecting. It likewise implies the significance of dance as a type of diversion in those times.
- Archaeologist Sir John Marshall (who found the Indus Valley Civilization as it were) has commented, “When I originally saw them I found it challenging to accept that they were ancient… “
- These magnificent bits of workmanship, made utilizing the lost-wax projecting cycle, dated millennia before the Greeks.
- Major Facts on Advances in Architecture in Indus Valley Civilisation
Progressions in Metallurgy in Indus Valley Civilization
- They created metal items remembering those for lead, copper, bronze and tin.
- They sent out these items.
- They knew the strategy of refining copper with different metals.
- Gold neckbands less than 0.25 mm in measurement have been uncovered at Lothal. Other metal curios have been found in Mohenjo-Daro, Harappa and Rangpur.
- Harappan copper carries out were made by the strategy for projecting.
- Bronze vessels were produced using a solitary sheet which was pounded.
- Metal alloying innovation was well-developed in the Indus Valley Civilization.
- They even tried the immaculateness of gold by the standard procedure
- A standard has been recuperated from Banawali, Haryana.
- This standard has dashes of gold in it demonstrating that examining the virtue of old was most likely utilized.
- This strategy is utilized in a piece of the country right up ’til now.
|General Facts of Indus Valley Civilization|
|The most seasoned Indus Valley settlement was laid out around 7000 B.C.Mehrgarh is the most established realized settlement tracing all the way back to around 7000 B.C.It started during the pre-Harappan period.Mehrgarh was a cultivating town.|
|The city of Mohenjo-Daro was worked somewhere multiple timesMany of the urban areas of this civilisation were annihilated a few times by flood, statement of residues, and so on.Each time they were remade.What is astonishing is that each time they remade the urban communities, they utilized a similar framework design.Mohenjo-Daro was developed multiple times and each time on top of the previous framework.This shows the refinement in their metropolitan preparation.|
|Over 4000 seals have been found from the localesThese seals are little, rectangular stone sections with engravings on them.They additionally have pictures of creatures and different figures on them.The utilization of these seals is questionable.|
|The Indus Valley Script has still Not Been DecipheredOne of the reasons we have close to zero familiarity with this civilisation is that their content has not yet been interpreted.Around 400 unique images have been distinguished engraved in objects.They show up in strings of somewhere in the range of 3 and 20.Historians accept they are likely names and have no other significance.|
|The Indus Valley Civilization even had dental specialists among themIn 2006, Nature diary pronounced that the primary proof of boring of the human teeth in a live individual was found in Mehrgarh, present Pakistan.This revelation was finished in 2001 when eleven penetrated molar crowns were uncovered from a Neolithic grave in Mehrgarh dating between 5500 B.C. furthermore, 7000 B.C.This striking disclosure shows that individuals of the Indus Valley Civilization knew about proto dentistry.|
|No Evidence of WarfareAlthough a few weapons like lances, blades and arrow points have been uncovered from the locales, there is no proof of fighting from the Indus Valley Civilization.It is presumed that they were, by and large, a harmony cherishing individual.It is likewise conceivable that this was on the grounds that they had no regular adversaries and different settlements had great exchange relations with them.|
|No Depiction of any King or RulerDespite having a coordinated lifestyle, there is no portrayal or proof of any ruler or any overseeing framework for the Harappan civilisation.The nearest portrayal to any sort of a focal figure is an earthenware mold accepted to be that of a cleric ruler.|
|Cause of Decline: UnknownHistorians are don’t know what prompted the decay of the Indus Valley Civilization.Experts are presently certain that it wasn’t attack, illness or whatever other disaster that caused their downfall.The urban areas and settlements began declining step by step and they appeared to have been deserted by the occupants who could have moved to greener fields.It is trusted that the continuous evaporating of the Saraswati River could have prompted this.The civilisation didn’t reach a sudden conclusion however declined bit by bit and got absorbed into different societies.|
Frequently Asked Question
1. Which is the biggest Site of Indus Valley Civilization (IVC)?
Ans. Mohenjo-Daro (Pakistan)
2. Which is the second biggest site of Indus Valley Civilization after Mohenjo-Daro?
3. Which is the biggest site of Indus Valley Civilization in India?
4. Who is the principal Scholar to utilize the term Indus Civilization?
Ans. John Marshall
5. Which of individuals previously delivered Cotton in the World?
Ans. Indus People
6. Does Animal Lion Known to the Indus Valley People?