Daily Answer Writing for UPSC –12th August 2023

Question: Define deflation and assess its potential risk in China, along with its possible repercussions on the worldwide economy. (250-words)


Deflation signifies a sustained decrease in overall prices, leading to lower consumer spending and demand due to falling goods and services prices. Deflation can be caused by an increase in productivity, a decrease in overall demand, or a decrease in the volume of credit in the economy. Most of the time, deflation is unambiguously a positive trend for the economy, but it can also under certain conditions occur along with a contraction in the economy.

China’s economy has fallen into deflation after consumer prices fell year on year last month for the first time in more than two years, official data shows, as slowing domestic spending weighs on the country’s post-Covid economic recovery.

Potential Risk of Deflation in China:

  • China is currently grappling with deflation, evidenced by declining consumer price index and producer prices.
  • Property sector turmoil is a contributing factor, with potential repercussions for various industries and overall economic performance.

Repercussions on Worldwide Economy:

  • China’s significance in global trade and consumption leads to a worldwide impact of its deflation.
  • Reduced demand for imports affects nations dependent on Chinese consumption, triggers disruptions in commodity markets, and impacts global supply chains due to China’s integration.

Mitigation Strategies:

  • Countries can utilize monetary and fiscal tools to counter deflation.
  • Addressing systemic deflation challenges necessitates international cooperation among nations.

Way forward:

  • China’s deflation risk emerges from diminished demand and sectoral concerns.
  • This risk cascades into broader consequences for international trade, commodities, and industries.
  • Effective policies at both national and global levels are vital to manage these implications and uphold economic stability.

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