Daily Answer Writing for UPSC – 19th July 2023

Question: Analyze the causes of wildfires, and suggest effective strategies to mitigate their occurrence and manage their impact on ecosystems and human communities. (150 WORDS)

Answer: A wildfire is a major fire that breaks out unpredictably in combustible environments such as dry forests or bush and often burns uncontrollably over a large area and length of time. A forest fire can be triggered by natural factors such as prolonged hot, dry weather or lightning strikes, or human carelessness.


Natural Causes:

  • Lightning: Lightning strikes during thunderstorms can ignite wildfires. These are known as “wildfires by natural ignition” and occur predominantly in regions with dry vegetation and thunderstorm activity.
  • Volcanic Activity: Volcanic eruptions can release hot lava and volcanic ash, which can ignite wildfires when they come into contact with flammable vegetation.

Human Causes:

  • Campfires and Outdoor Burning: Negligently or improperly managed campfires, bonfires, and outdoor burning can escape and start wildfires.
  • Discarded Cigarettes: Carelessly discarded cigarettes, especially in dry and windy conditions, can ignite vegetation and start fires.
  • Arson: Deliberate acts of arson, where individuals intentionally start fires, can cause wildfires and pose a significant threat to ecosystems and communities.

Natural Events:

  • Volcanic Activity: Besides causing wildfires directly through lava and ash, volcanic activity can also result in secondary wildfires by altering landscapes, weather patterns, and fuel conditions.
  • Earthquakes: Seismic activity can damage gas lines, electrical systems, or create sparks through friction, which can ignite fires.

Weather Conditions:

  • Drought: Extended periods of drought can dry out vegetation, making it more susceptible to ignition and rapid fire spread.
  • High Temperatures: Hot and dry weather conditions increase the risk of wildfires as they facilitate the drying of vegetation and create a conducive environment for fire ignition and spread.

Measures to tackle:


  • Public Education: Promote awareness about the causes and risks of wildfires, and educate communities about fire-safe practices, such as proper campfire management and responsible disposal of cigarettes.
  • Fire Restrictions: Enforce and communicate fire restrictions during periods of high fire danger, including bans on outdoor burning, campfires, and fireworks.

Fuel Management:

  • Fuel Reduction: Implement forest management practices such as selective thinning, removal of dead vegetation, and reducing the density of flammable vegetation to decrease fuel loads and create firebreaks.
  • Invasive Species Management: Prevent and control the spread of invasive plant species that can increase the intensity and spread of wildfires through their flammable nature.

Early Detection and Rapid Response:

  • Fire Monitoring Systems: Invest in advanced technologies such as satellite-based fire detection systems, remote cameras, and early warning networks to quickly detect and locate wildfires.
  • Firefighting Resources: Ensure sufficient resources, including trained firefighters, firefighting equipment, aircraft, and water supply, to respond promptly and effectively to wildfires.

Community Preparedness:

  • Emergency Plans: Develop and communicate evacuation plans, emergency procedures, and community alerts to ensure residents are prepared and can quickly respond to wildfire events.

Climate Change Adaptation:

  • Mitigating Climate Change: Reduce greenhouse gas emissions through initiatives like transitioning to clean energy sources, promoting energy efficiency, and sustainable land-use practices.

Wildfires are a significant threat to ecosystems and human communities, causing loss of life, property damage, and environmental degradation. Understanding the causes of wildfires is essential for developing effective strategies to mitigate their occurrence and manage their impact.

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