Daily Answer Writing for UPSC –21st July 2023

Questions: Evaluate the contributions of non-violent resistance led by Mahatma Gandhi and the revolutionary movements in the attainment of India’s independence. (250 words)


The attainment of India’s independence from British colonial rule was a momentous event that stands as a testament to the resilience and determination of the Indian people. The struggle for freedom was shaped by two distinct yet interconnected movements – the non-violent resistance led by Mahatma Gandhi and the revolutionary movements that sought a more aggressive approach to liberate the nation. Both approaches, though distinct in their methods, played pivotal roles in India’s journey towards independence.

Non-Violent Resistance led by Mahatma Gandhi:

Mahatma Gandhi’s approach to non-violent resistance, known as Satyagraha, played a pivotal role in mobilizing the masses and galvanizing the nation against British rule. Some key contributions include:

  • Mass Mobilization: Gandhi’s emphasis on non-violence and civil disobedience resonated with a wide cross-section of Indian society. His campaigns, such as the Salt March and the Quit India Movement, brought millions of Indians together, transcending regional, linguistic, and religious barriers. This mass mobilization exerted immense pressure on the British administration and made the Indian independence movement a formidable force.
  • Moral High Ground: By adhering to non-violence, Gandhi and his followers gained the moral high ground in the struggle. Their commitment to peaceful protest and willingness to endure hardships garnered international support and sympathy, weakening Britain’s legitimacy as a colonial power. Gandhi’s principles inspired other movements for civil rights and freedom across the world.
  • Unity and Inclusivity: Gandhi’s non-violent resistance promoted unity and inclusivity within the Indian independence movement. People from diverse backgrounds, including peasants, workers, students, and women, participated actively in the struggle. This unity fostered a sense of collective identity and purpose, strengthening India’s demand for independence.
  • Legacy of Non-Violence: Gandhi’s non-violent approach left a lasting impact on India’s political and social fabric. Even after independence, non-violence remained a powerful tool for future leaders like Martin Luther King Jr., Nelson Mandela, and others in their respective struggles for justice and equality.

Revolutionary Movements:

The revolutionary movements, represented by groups like the Indian National Army (INA) and various underground organizations, took a more militant approach to free India from British rule. Their contributions can be evaluated as follows:

  • Armed Resistance: The revolutionary movements resorted to armed struggle against the British, engaging in acts of sabotage, armed attacks, and guerrilla warfare. While their impact on the overall freedom struggle may have been limited, their actions put significant pressure on the colonial administration and contributed to creating an atmosphere of unrest.
  • Symbolic Resistance: The INA, under Subhas Chandra Bose, represented a powerful symbol of nationalist sentiment. Its soldiers, comprising Indian prisoners of war from the British Indian Army, fought alongside the Japanese during World War II. Although they did not achieve military success, their spirit of sacrifice and nationalism inspired many Indians.
  • Radicalization of the Movement: The revolutionary movements injected a sense of urgency and radicalism into the struggle for independence. While Gandhi’s non-violent approach emphasized gradual change and negotiation, the revolutionary movements demanded immediate and complete independence. This radicalization pushed the British authorities to reevaluate their colonial policies.
  • Impact on British Policy: The rise of revolutionary movements compelled the British to adopt more repressive measures, leading to increased dissent and international scrutiny of their colonial practices. This, in turn, accelerated the momentum for India’s independence.

Ultimately, it was the combination of both diverse strategies that played a crucial role in securing India’s independence in 1947. The non-violent resistance demonstrated the power of collective action and moral force, while the revolutionary movements added an element of resistance and dissent that influenced the trajectory of the freedom struggle. Both approaches remain integral to India’s historical legacy and continue to inspire movements for justice and liberation worldwide.

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