Daily Answer Writing for UPSC –20th July 2023

Question: Discuss the benefits and risks associated with the adoption of genetically modified (GM) crops in agriculture. (150 words


GM foods are derived from plants whose genes are artificially modified, usually by inserting genetic material from another organism, in order to give it a new property, such as increased yield, tolerance to a herbicide, resistance to disease or drought, or to improve its nutritional value.


  • Increased crop yield and quality: The genetically modified maize varieties engineered to produce a natural insecticide, like Bt corn, have shown significantly higher yields due to reduced pest damage.
  • Enhanced resistance to pests and diseases: Papaya ringspot virus-resistant GM papaya varieties saved the papaya industry in Hawaii from devastation, preventing the virus from spreading and leading to increased yields.
  • Improved nutritional content: Golden Rice is a genetically modified rice variety enriched with beta-carotene, a precursor of Vitamin A. It aims to combat Vitamin A deficiency, which can cause blindness and other health issues, particularly in developing countries.
  • Sustainable agricultural practices: Drought-resistant GM crops, such as drought-tolerant maize, can thrive in water-stressed regions, reducing water consumption and contributing to sustainable farming.
  • Faster development of new crop varieties: Genetic modification can accelerate the introduction of desired traits. For instance, genetically engineered soybeans with herbicide resistance allow farmers to control weeds more effectively, leading to increased productivity.

Risks of GM crops in agriculture:

  • Unintended ecological consequences: The widespread adoption of Bt cotton led to the development of resistance in bollworm pests in some regions, resulting in reduced effectiveness of the Bt trait and increased insecticide use.
  • Gene flow to wild relatives: Genetically modified canola plants have been found growing in the wild, raising concerns about the spread of GM traits to non-GM populations.
  • Ethical and socio-economic concerns: The patenting and commercial control of GM seed varieties by large corporations have raised issues of access and affordability for small farmers.
  • Uncertain long-term health effects: There have been debates about the potential health risks associated with consuming GM crops, but comprehensive long-term studies are still needed for conclusive evidence.
  • Reduction of genetic diversity: Widespread adoption of a few genetically uniform GM crops can lead to reduced genetic variation, making crops more susceptible to new pests or diseases.

To harness the benefits of GM crops responsibly, robust regulations, transparent risk assessments, and public awareness are essential. Striking a balance between agricultural advancement and environmental and social sustainability is crucial in ensuring that GM crops contribute positively to our global food systems. Further research and open dialogue among stakeholders will be instrumental in making informed decisions for the future of GM crops in agriculture.

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