Daily Answer Writing for UPSC –8th August 2023

Question: “Discuss the challenges faced by the handloom industry in India and suggest measures to promote and revitalize this traditional craft, ensuring sustainable livelihoods for artisans and preserving the rich cultural heritage.”(250 words)


The handloom sector of India is one of the biggest unorganized economic activities. The handloom industry in India has a long tradition of outstanding artisanship that represents and preserves vibrant Indian culture. India’s handloom artists are globally known for their unique hand-spinning, weaving and printing style. They are based out of small towns and villages of the country which transfer skills from one generation to the next. The handloom industry is the country’s largest cottage industry, with 23.77 lakh looms.

Challenges Faced by the Handloom Industry:

1. Competition from Power Looms: The influx of machine-produced textiles, often cheaper and faster, has intensified competition. For instance, the vibrant Banarasi sarees face competition from mass-produced fabrics that mimic their intricate designs.

2. Economic Marginalization: Artisans often find themselves at the mercy of exploitative intermediaries who purchase their products at low prices and sell them at substantial mark-ups. This leaves the weavers struggling to make ends meet and inhibits their growth.

3. Decline in Artisan Numbers: The traditional art of handloom weaving, handed down through generations, faces the risk of being forgotten as younger artisans seek more lucrative livelihoods. This trend is particularly evident in regions like Kanchipuram, where younger weavers opt for alternate careers.

4. Limited Market Exposure: Handloom textiles struggle to compete with globally recognized brands and fast fashion trends. The famous Pochampally sarees, known for their intricate patterns, often face challenges in capturing the attention of modern consumers.

Measures to Promote and Revitalize the Handloom Industry:

1. Financial Support and Incentives: The Odisha government’s initiative to provide financial support to handloom weavers, including interest-free loans and subsidies for raw materials, has significantly eased their economic burdens.

2. Market Promotion and Branding: The ‘Make in India’ campaign has enabled traditional textiles like khadi to be recognized on a global scale, attracting younger consumers interested in eco-friendly and sustainable products.

3. Skill Development and Training: Initiatives like the ‘Hunar Haat,’ organized by the Ministry of Minority Affairs, provide a platform for artisans to showcase their skills and interact directly with consumers, igniting interest among the youth.

4. Collaborations and Design Interventions: Collaborations between renowned designers and artisans have resulted in unique products that combine traditional techniques with contemporary designs.

5. Research and Development: Institutions like the National Institute of Fashion Technology (NIFT) are researching innovative ways to incorporate handloom textiles into modern fashion trends, attracting a younger customer base.

6. Legal Protection and Copyrights: The Geographical Indication (GI) tag granted to specific handloom products, like Kanchipuram silk sarees, protects their authenticity and ensures rightful recognition for artisans.

By implementing measures such as financial support, market promotion, skill development, collaborations, and legal protection, India can revitalize its handloom industry. Through these efforts, artisans can regain economic stability, the industry’s cultural legacy can be preserved, and the country’s traditional crafts can flourish in the modern world.

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