High Courts in India: A high court is a state’s supreme judicial body. Article 214 mandates that each state in India have a High Court. Article 231 also allows two or more states to share a high court. It has jurisdiction over Maharashtra, Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Goa, etc.
In 2019, the Telangana and Andhra Pradesh High Courts were established. India has 25 high courts as of 2020. The Calcutta High Court, founded in 1862, is also India’s oldest high court.
The President of India appoints the Chief Justice and other judges to the high court. To establish the chief justice of a state’s high court, the president of India consults the governor and the Supreme Court Chief Justice. The number of judges on a high court varies by court and state.
High Courts in India: Who can sit on a high court? What is required to be a high court judge?
i. A citizen of India
ii. He should have acted as an advocate in one or more Indian high courts or for ten years in a subordinate court.
iii. He should have ten years of judicial experience in India.
The age of retirement for high court judges was 60 years, raised to 62 years in 1963 by the constitution’s 15th amendment.
Removing a High Court Judge
- He may resign if he wishes. He must inform the Indian president of his resignation.
- His office is considered vacant if he is appointed to the Supreme Court or another high court.
- He can be removed if the parliament votes unanimously against him.
- A High Court’s Powers
- Issue writs: It can issue a mandamus, habeas corpus, and quo warranto writs.
- Superintendence: It supervises all courts and tribunals.
- Case transfer: It can withdraw or transfer cases from subordinate courts. It happens in cases where there is a substantial legal issue.
- Governor must consult the High Court when appointing, posting, or promoting district judges. The high court also advises on State Judicial Service appointments.
These are the high courts in India, with their location and founding year:
1) Bombay High Court
The Bombay High Court is one of India’s oldest high courts, located in Mumbai. It was founded in 1862.
2) Kolkata High Court
The Calcutta High Court is one of India’s oldest.
3) Madras High Court
Madras High Court is located in Chennai, Tamil Nadu. It is also one of India’s oldest high courts.
4) Allahabad High Court
The Allahabad High Court has been renamed Prayagraj.
5) Karnataka High Court
The Karnataka High Court is situated in Bangalore, Karnataka. It was called the Mysore High Court.
6) Patna High Court
It was founded on February 9, 1916, in Bihar. Its foundation stone was laid on December 1, 1913, and it opened on March 1, 1916.
7) Jammu & Kashmir High Court
It is the J&K and Ladakh High Court. It began on March 26, 1928.
8) Punjab & Haryana
The Punjab & Haryana High Court covers Haryana, Punjab, and Chandigarh. It is housed in Sector 1 of Chandigarh and is known as the Palace of Justice. In Chandigarh,
9) Gauhati High Court
The North East Areas (Reorganization) Act of 1971 was renamed the Assam High Court Gauhati High Court.
10) Orissa High Court
It is the Odisha High Court. Previously, this state was ruled by the Patna High Court.
11) Rajasthan High Court
It is Rajasthan’s high court. The Rajasthan High Court Ordinance 1949 was established on August 29, 1949.
12) Madhya Pradesh High Court
It is the Madhya Pradesh high court. It was founded in 1956 when the state of Madhya Pradesh was formed.
13) Kerala High Court
The highest court in Kerala and Lakshadweep. It is in Kochi.
14) Gujarat High Court
The Gujarat High Court is located in Sola, Ahmedabad. Following the division of Bombay into Maharashtra and Gujarat, it was established on May 1, 1960.
15) Delhi High Court
The Delhi High Court is located in Delhi, India’s capital. It began with only four judges on October 31, 1966.
16) Himachal Pradesh High Court
It’s the Himachal Pradesh high court. Himachal Pradesh became a state on January 25, 1971, the same year it got its high court. It is at the Mall.
17) Sikkim High Court
It is the Sikkim High Court. It was founded in 1975 when Sikkim became India’s 22nd state.
18) Chhattisgarh High Court
The Chhattisgarh high court is located in Bilaspur. It has jurisdiction over the whole of Chhattisgarh.
19) Uttarakhand High Court
It is the Uttarakhand High Court in India. The Uttar Pradesh Reorganization Act 2000 created Uttarakhand on November 9, 2000.
20) Jharkhand High Court
It is the Jharkhand High Court. It’s in Doranda, Ranchi.
21) Tripura High Court
It is the Tripura High Court. Northern Areas (Re-organisation) Act, 1971, was established on March 23, 2013.
22) Manipur High Court
The Manipur High Court is located in Mantripukhri, Imphal. It was established on March 25, 2013, after the Indian Constitution was amended.
23) Meghalaya High Court
High Courts in India: The Meghalaya High Court is the state’s highest court. It was formed in March 2013 after amendments to the Indian Constitution and the North Eastern Regions (Reorganization) Act of 1971.
24) Telangana High Court
Telangana high court is located in Telangana, India. As its name implies, it has jurisdiction over the whole of Telangana.
25) Andhra Pradesh High Court
Andhra Pradesh owns the high court. The Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014, was established on January 1, 2019.
In 2020, how many high courts does India have?
India now has 25 High Courts.
What is the new Indian High Court?
TP and AP High Courts were established in 2019.
Which Indian state lacks a High Court?
No high court in Goa, Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, or Nagaland.
Which is India’s largest High Court?
The Allahabad High Court is India’s most significant.