United Nations: This is an international organization, also known as UNO. The purpose of the UN is to maintain peace and order throughout the world. It is the largest intergovernmental organization and also the most powerful in the world. It always promotes friendship and cooperation between all the nations in the world.

Headquarter: New York city, New York, United States.

Total members: 193 member states, 2 observer states.

Current Leaders:

• Secretary‑General;

António Guterres

• Deputy Secretary-General:

Amina J. Mohammed

• General Assembly President:

Abdulla Shahid

• Economic and Social Council President:

Collen Vixen Kelapile

Official Website: www.un.org (general) www.un.int (permanent missions)

History of UN:

United Nations: The UN was formed after World War 2, and the purpose of this organization is to avoid the calamity and devastation of world war or any such major conflicts in the future. It is the successor of the League of Nations which was an absolute failure. The heads of 50 nations had a meeting in San Francisco on 25 April 1945, and created a draft which became the UN Charter. The charter was finally adopted on 25 June 1945, and came into function on 24 October 1954.

Functions of UN:

United Nations: According to the Charter, the aim of the UN is to maintain world peace, promote healthy relationships between governments, promote sustainable development, protect human rights, and provide help for all human development and support international law. In the beginning, there were 51 member states in the UN, currently its 193, which happened in 2011, now the vast majority of all the nations are part of the UN.

The Structure of UN:

United Nations (UN) consists of 5 main bodies;

  1. General Assembly
  2. United Nations Security Council
  3. Economic and Social Council
  4. International Court of Justice
  5. UN secretariat

There used to be a sixth body of the UN known as Trusteeship Council, now it’s not in function anymore after 1 November 1994, upon the independence of Palau, which the last is remaining UN trustee territory.

General Assembly:

This is the main assembly who takes most of the decisions in the UN. The tasks of General Assembly is as follows;

  • This is the assembly which approves the budget for the UN, after taking a good look at everything. It also provides financial help to the member nations of the UN in need.
  • It also elects the non-stable members of Security Council and also elects the other members in the bodies of UN, after the recommendation of Security Council and also appoints the Security General.
  • Helps the nations to establish peaceful relationships with each other in chaotic and troublesome situations.
  • It analyzes the reports given by the Security Council and other bodies of the UN.

United Nations Security Council:

Its main responsibility is to establish a peaceful and secure environment internationally. The primary functions are as follows:

  • To recommend the election of new members to the UN.
  • To examine the chaotic situation which can harm international order and peace.
  • To recommend the election of Secretary General to the General Assembly.
  • It also elects the judges in the International Court of Justice.

Economic and Social Council:

It handles all the economic and social issues in the world. Its functions are as follows;

  • To maintain a cooperative relationship between the members in economic and social affairs.
  • It coordinates the better relationship and mutual functioning of various specialized UN agencies.
  • It consists of 54 members which is elected by General Assembly to serve of 3 years

International Court of Justice:

It’s the universal court function according to International Law. Its functions are;

  • Helps resolve the conflicts between the nations according to its judiciary.
  • Legal opinions throughout the world are issued by this body of the UN.
  • The judgment in a particular case is done by the relative majority opinion of all the judges.
  • It consists of 15 judges appointed by the UN General Assembly for a 9 years of period.

UN Secretariat:

It is the administrative department of the UN. The functions are as follows;

  • It supports the other bodies of the UN, as it’s the administration of the UN.
  • Helps other bodies in many things like Organizing the conferences, support in making of the budget etc.
  • The head of this body of the UN, is known as Secretary General which is appointed by the General Assembly.
  • The Secretary General is mainly the representative of the UN.

Specialized Agencies of United Nations (UN):

All the 5 bodies of the UN are allowed to make as many agencies to fulfill their duties. Currently there are 17 agencies of the UN. The list is as follows:

They are mentioned in the table below:

  1. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), located in Rome, Italy. Founded in1945.
  1. International Telecommunication Union (ITU). Its headquarters are in Geneva, Switzerland. It started in 1865 (Joined UN in 1947).
  2. International Fund for Agricultural Development        (IFAD). Located in      Rome, Italy. Founding year is 1977.
  1. International Labor Organization (ILO), Headquarters are in Geneva, Switzerland, Founded in 1946.
  2. International Maritime Organization    (IMO) London, United Kingdom, founded in 1948.
  3. International Monetary Fund (IMF), location: Washington, United States, started in 1945.
  4. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Located in Paris, France, started in 1946.
  5. World Health Organization (WHO) Located in Geneva, Switzerland, started in 1948.
  6. United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) is located in Vienna, Austria, with a founding year of 1966.
  7. International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), Located in Montreal, Canada, year of founding is 1944.
  8. World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), Location: Geneva, Switzerland, Started in 1967.
  9. International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), Location: Rome, Italy, founding year is 1977.
  10. Universal Postal Union (UPU), Location: Bern, Switzerland, started in 1874.
  11. International Telecommunication Union (ITU), Location: Geneva, Switzerland, founding year is 1865.
  12. United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), Located in Madrid, Spain, Founding year 1974.
  13. World Meteorological Organization    (WMO), Located in Geneva, Switzerland, Founding year 1950.
  14. World Bank Group (WBG), Located in Washington D.C. USA, Year of Founding is 1944.

FAQs about UN:

Q1. Does the world still need the UN?

A1. The policies and functions of the UN are still helping in maintaining world peace and the better of humanity as a whole. So yes, we still need a UN in the World.

Q2. Who are the 2 observer states of the UN?

A2.  The Holy See and Palestine.

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