Daily Answer Writing for UPSC –31st August 2023


Could the act of conducting a caste census possibly strengthen social divisions and reinforce caste identities, ultimately leading to increased polarisation and the risk of undermining progress in reducing caste-based discrimination?(250 words)


Caste census means inclusion of caste-wise tabulation of India’s population in the Census exercise. India has counted and published caste data — from 1951 to 2011 — of the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes only. It also publishes data related to religions, languages and socio-economic status. The last caste census was conducted in 1931. All caste data are projected on its basis. It became the basis for quota caps under the Mandal formula.

Caste data were collected for the 2011 census but the data were never made public.

Arguments for Conducting a Caste Census:

  • Data Collection for Targeted Policies: A caste census could provide accurate data on the distribution of different castes, allowing for more effective targeting of policies and initiatives aimed at addressing socio-economic disparities and discrimination.
  • Evidence-Based Decision Making: Data from a caste census could help policymakers make informed decisions on resource allocation, reservation policies, and other measures to reduce inequalities among different caste groups.
  • Recognition of Marginalized Groups: Counting caste populations can lead to greater recognition of historically marginalized groups and their specific needs, potentially leading to more inclusive policies and social programs.

Arguments Against Conducting a Caste Census:

  • Strengthening Identity: Conducting a caste census could reinforce caste identities and divisions by categorizing individuals based on their caste, potentially perpetuating social hierarchies and discrimination.
  • Polarization and Conflict: The availability of caste-based data might exacerbate inter-caste tensions and lead to polarization, as different groups may perceive the data in ways that fuel grievances or conflicts.
  • Privacy and Stigmatization: People might be uncomfortable sharing their caste identity due to privacy concerns or fear of stigmatization, leading to inaccuracies in data collection. Caste-based discrimination might also increase if the data is misused.
  • Focus on Individual Merit: Critics argue that focusing on caste can detract from efforts to promote individual merit and create a level playing field, as policies might become overly reliant on caste-based considerations.

Implementing safeguards to ensure the responsible use of data, protecting privacy, and avoiding the reinforcement of negative stereotypes would be crucial in any such endeavor.

Ultimately, the success or failure of a caste census in relation to strengthening divisions and reinforcing identities would depend on how the data is collected, analyzed, and utilized, as well as the broader political, social, and economic climate in which such a census takes place.

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