Rural Development Schemes in India: Different ministries of the Indian government develop various development projects not to maximise profit but to maximise people’s welfare. The government of India creates programmes such as the National Rural Livelihood Mission, MGNREGA, and Bharat Nirman for rural development.

For aspirants of prominent exams such as IAS/PCS/SSC/CDS/Banking, some relevant facts about major rural development programmes are provided here.

Padhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY)

·  The project, which was launched on December 25, 2000 by then-Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee, intends to improve rural road connections.

· This project connects habitations that have little or no connectivity and aids in poverty reduction by encouraging access to economic and social services.

·  This ensures long-term poverty reduction by providing people with the ability to interact with the rest of the world.

·  Several villagers have benefited from the scheme, which is assisting them in leading better lives.

·  Until December 2017, over 82 percent of roads have been completed, successfully connecting various rural communities to cities.

·  Previously, the plan was only supported by the central government, but after the suggestion of the 14th Finance Commission report, the cost is now split by both the state and the federal governments.

·  According to the most recent data available on the PMGSY website, the government has finished a total of 1,69,129 roads and a total length of 705,179 km under the project.

Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Grameen Kaushalya Yojana

  • The Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Grameen Kaushalya Yojana, a component of the National Livelihood Mission, aims to meet the career goals of rural youth while also diversifying rural families’ income.
  • The scheme, which was launched on September 25, 2014, is primarily aimed at rural youngsters from low-income households aged 15 to 35.
  • A total of Rs 1500 crores has been set up for the scheme, which will aid in increasing employability.
  • The yojana is present in 21 states and union territories, spanning 568 districts and 6215 blocks, and is altering the lives of young people.
  • 300 partners are working on around 690 projects. According to government figures, almost 11 lakh individuals have been trained and approximately 6 lakh have been placed in jobs.

Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana/ National Rural Livelihood Mission

· The Ministry of Rural Development introduced the Swarnjayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana, now known as the National Rural Livelihood Mission, in 2011.

· This scheme, also known as Ajeevika, aims to empower women through self-help models across the country.

·  Under this scheme, the government gives a loan of 3 lakh rupees at a 7% interest rate that can be reduced to 4% upon repayment. The World Bank backed the project, which attempted to create efficient and effective institutional platforms for the underprivileged.

·  It also contributed to higher household income by boosting access to financial services.

·  NRLM also assists in tapping the capabilities of the impoverished so that they can participate in the country’s economic prosperity.

Prime Minister Rural Development Fellows Scheme

· The Prime Minister Rural Development Fellowship (PMRDF) is an initiative of the Ministry of Rural Development that is being executed in partnership with state governments.

·  Its dual goals are to provide short-term assistance to district administrations in underdeveloped and isolated areas of the country, as well as to produce competent and motivated leaders and facilitators who can serve as long-term resources.

Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA)

·  The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) of 2005 guarantees 100 days of employment to any rural household adult willing to do unskilled manual labour in a fiscal year.

·  The Act targets the working class and their fundamental right to live a dignified existence.

·  If a person does not find work within 15 days, he is eligible for unemployment benefits.

·  The National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) emphasises the importance of the fundamental right to employment.

·  This act has been amended in order to reduce corruption in the plan. MGNREGA has reached over 700 districts in India.

·  Furthermore, more than 14.8 crore MGNREGA cards have been issued throughout the country, and 28 crore citizens have experienced the advantages of this plan in the fiscal year 2020-21.

Sampoorna Grameen Rozgar Yojana (SGRY)

·  The Sampoorna Grameen Rozgar Yojana (SGRY) was established in 2001 to help the poor find work.

·  It also aimed to provide food to persons living in low-income neighbourhoods and improve their nutritional status.

·  Other goals of this Yojana were providing social and economic assets to persons living in rural areas.

·   The scheme does not call for the use of contractors or middlemen.

Samagra Siksha Abhiyan

  • The Sarv Siksha Abhiyan was inaugurated in 2000 by former Prime Minister Atal Bihari Bajpayee.
  • However, in 2018, the Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA), Teacher Education, and the Sarva Siksha Abhiyan were merged into the Samagra Siksha Abhiyan.
  • It is an endeavour to give all children with the opportunity to get free education, which is also a basic fundamental right.
  • The state and the federal government split the costs of this project, with the federal government funding 85 percent of the costs and the state contributing 15 percent.
  • The government has budgeted about 37,383 rupees for the scheme in 2022.

Sansad Adarsh Gram Yojana (SAGY)

·  Sansad Adarsh Gram Yojana (SAGY) is a rural development programme introduced by the Government of India in 2014 in which each Member of Parliament will be responsible for three villages’ personal, human, social, environmental, and economic development.

·   This would significantly improve the villagers’ standard of living as well as their quality of life. This initiative has received no financing because funds can be obtained through current schemes.

National Social Assistance Programme (NSAP)

·   The National Social Assistance Program represents the fulfilment of Directive Principles in Articles 41 and 42 of the Constitution, which state that it is the duty of the state to provide assistance to citizens in the event of sickness, unemployment, or old age within the limits of the state’s economic capabilities.

·  It is essentially a government sponsored scheme of the Government of India that offers financial assistance to widows, the aged, and individuals with disabilities in the form of pensions. On August 15, 1995, the plan was started.

·  Until date, the NSAP has more than 2.9 crore beneficiaries, and by adding 1.5 crore state recipients, the total number of persons who benefit from this programme exceeds 4 crores.

Pradhan Mantri Awaas Yojana (Gramin)/ Indira Awas Yojana

· Indira Awas Yojana, renamed Pradhan Mantri Gramin Awaas Yojana in 2016, is an Indian government welfare programme designed to give houses to rural impoverished people in India.

· The scheme’s purpose is to offer housing to all citizens by 2022. The expense of building the houses will be split between the centre and the state.

· Except for Delhi and Chandigarh, the plan has been implemented in rural areas across India.

· Houses built under this project will include essential utilities such as a toilet, power, drinking water, and LPG connections, among other things.

· The designated houses will be jointly owned by husband and wife. 1.2 crore dwellings have been sanctioned thus far, with over 58 lakhs completed.

·  The government has budgeted over Rs 48,000 crore for the scheme in 2022, with the government aiming to meet a target of over 80 lakh this year.

Antyodaya Anna Yojana (AAY)

· The Antyodaya Anna Yojana, launched in 2000 by former Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee, sought to provide food grains at subsidised rates to around 2 crore people.

· Under the scheme, households living below the poverty line (BPL) received 35 kgs of food grains.

·  Rice was provided at a rate of Rs 3/kg, and wheat was furnished at a rate of Rs 2/kg. The scheme was first adopted in Rajasthan, but it is now available in all Indian states.

Provision of Urban Amenities In Rural Areas (PURA)

  • PURA is an Indian rural development concept presented by former President APJ Abdul Kalam in his book Target 3 billion.
  • To generate opportunities outside of cities, PURA recommends providing urban infrastructure and services in rural areas.
  • This will also deter youth from migrating from rural to urban regions.
  • Since its inception in 2004, the Central Government has been operating PURA initiatives in several states.

Roshni: Skill Development Scheme for Tribals:

  • On June 7, 2013, the Ministry of Rural Development introduced a new skill development scheme aimed at providing jobs to tribal youngsters in 24 Naxal-affected districts.
  • The Roshni scheme is intended to provide training and employment to an estimated 50000 children between the ages of 10 and 35 during a three-year period.
  • According to the Ministry, 50% of the scheme’s beneficiaries will be women alone.
  • The initiative is based on the Himayat project model, which was initiated in Jammu and Kashmir and has been piloted in Sukma, Chhattisgarh, and West Singhbhum, Jharkand during the last 18 months.

Swachchh Bharat Mission:

  • On the occasion of Mahatma Gandhi’s birth anniversary on October 2, 2014, the Prime Minister inaugurated the Swachh Bharat Mission.
  • The Swachh Bharat Abhiyan aims to provide everyone with access to sanitation services such as toilets, solid and liquid waste disposal systems, village cleanliness, and safe and enough drinking water supplies.
  • The Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation will carry out the programme.
  • An action plan has been developed to make Swachh Bharat a reality by 2019, the 150th anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi’s birth.
  • The Mission intends to triple the percentage of toilet growth from 3% to 10% by 2019.

Heritage Development and Augmentation Yojna (HRIDAY):

  • This scheme was established on January 21, 2015, by the Union Ministry of Urban Development.
  • Its goal is to preserve and revitalise the country’s rich cultural legacy.
  • HRIDAY’s inaugural phase identified 12 heritage cities that will be revitalised and developed. The Union Government would provide these 12 cities with 500 crore rupees.

Training to Rural Youth for Self-Employment (TRYSEM):

  • This federally funded programme began on August 15, 1979.
  • The primary goal of this scheme was to impart technical and business experience to rural BPL persons aged 18-35.
  • On April 1, 1999, this programme was integrated with Swarn Jayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojna.

Antyodaya Anna Yojna (AAY):

  • On December 25, 2000, Prime Minister Atal Bihari Bajpayi announced the plan.
  • The scheme supplies food grains at a heavily subsidised rate to about 2 million Below Poverty Line (BPL) families.
  • A family receives 35 kg of food grains in total. Rice costs Rs. 3 per kg, whereas wheat costs Rs. 2 per kg.

Village Grain Bank Scheme:

  • The department of food and public distribution implemented this system.
  • The main goal of this strategy is to protect people from famine during natural disasters or lean seasons when marginalised food insecure households do not have enough money to buy rations.
  • Needy people will be able to borrow food grains from the community grain bank and repay them when they have an abundance of food under this system.

National Rural Health Mission:

  • On April 12, 2005, the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM), now known as the National Health Mission, was launched.
  • The main goal of this strategy is to deliver quality health services that are accessible, cheap, and accountable to even the poorest households in the most remote rural areas.
  • This system also includes an ASHA (accredited social health activists) scheme.
  • The ministry of health and family welfare oversees it.

Aam Aadmi Bima Yojna:

  • It debuted on October 2, 2007.
  • It is a form of social security for rural households. This plan covers only one member of the family.
  • The state and central governments split the Rs. 200 per person per year premium.
  • If the insured person is between the ages of 18 and 59, no premium is required.

Kutir Jyoti Programme:

  • This programme debuted in 1988-89.
  • Its main goal was to raise the standard of living of schedule castes and schedule tribes, as well as rural families living below the poverty line.
  • Under this scheme, the government provides Rs. 400 in aid to low-income families for single-point power connections in their homes.

Start-up Village Entrepreneurship Programme (SVEP)

  • SVEP will be a targeted intervention to encourage rural poor households to start-up businesses at the village level by ensuring the provision of need-based financial assistance, capacity building, and advisory services for the establishment of village enterprises.
  • SVEP envisions the creation of long-term self-employment opportunities for a significant number of rural disadvantaged youth, allowing them to engage successfully in the market and contribute to local wealth creation.
  • SVEP will bring banks and financial institutions closer to the rural entrepreneur in the process.