UNESCO Full Form: UNESCO stands for United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, and its headquarters exist in Place De Fontenoy, Paris. Its purpose is to build peace and order in the world through harmony and mutual understanding in the field of science, culture and education. The programs initiated by UNESCO have a noble goal to accomplish SDGS 2030 i.e. Sustainable development Goals which are acquired by the United Nations Assembly General Assembly 2015. It develops its commitments through mutual conversations between the countries.


Political and economic growth of the nations is sufficient to secure the undoubted support of the people. People must have mutual understanding on the basis of intellectual solidarity.

  • In accordance with this, UNESCO develops the methods and projects that help people to live in peace and harmony, without hating or in tolerating each other.
  • It’s dedicated to making every child and citizen to be educated and literate.
  • It encourages cultural heritage and equal respect to all the cultures in the world. By following this, it makes the bond between the nations stronger and deeper.
  • It highly appreciates the freedom of speech or expression as a basic right for sustainable development and democracy.
  • It guides nations to acquire International Standards and that promotes the effortless flow of information and knowledge exchange.

History of UNESCO:

In the year of 1942, because of the frightening effect of World Wat 2, the governments of European nations and other associated friendly nations which were fighting against the Nazis and Axis powers had a conference in United Kingdom for CAME (Conference of Allied Ministers and Education). As planned in CAME, a United Nation Conference to set up a cultural and educational organization was held in London in November 1945.

It successfully got the favorable response from 44 countries which were willing to promote peace and harmony in the world. According to those nations the only way to avoid this tremendous calamity and chaos like World War was only possible through intellectual and moral solidarity.

Milestone Achievements:

  • UNESCO preserves 1073 Heritage sites in 167 nations.
  • UNESCO harmonizes early tsunami warnings in nations across the whole world.
  • UNESCO is the who led the rebuilding of Mausoleums in Timbuktu.
  • UNESCO founded SESAME, an internationally renowned laboratory in the Middle East.
  • Angkor temple taken out from the endangered heritage of the world.
  • UNESCO made youth networks around 9 mediterranean nations.

UNESCO’s Brilliance:

  • Education: UNESCO firmly supports that education is the basic right of every individual across the globe and must be given to everyone regardless of their gender, caste, creed, color, race etc. This organization is the foremost single organization which has all aspects of education covered entirely in it. It is promoting the global education agenda 2030 through sustainable development goal 4.  The paradigm for its success is the Education 2030, the paradigm for action.
  • Culture: UNESCO thinks firmly that culture in its all variety and diversity has the power to upgrade societies. From ancient valuable monuments and respected museums to traditional practices and present day art forms make our lives fulfilling on a daily basis. Heritage has the sense of identification for the societies and brings togetherness among the individuals. Culture and creativity build the very basis for spirited, authentic and rich societies.
  • Science: Generating knowledge through scientific methods helps us to find exact solutions to the problem we have in our society to achieve sustainable goals. Science provides great value in every aspect whether it’s social, economic or environmental. As it’s very difficult for the nations to achieve their sustainable goals by themselves, they take help from international organizations like UNESCO and build a peaceful, more harmonious society inside.
  • Social and human Sciences: In today’s world where we have many kinds of societies, UNESCO combines with all the societies to bring togetherness and peace among them to make the world a better place as a whole.
  • Communication and Information: UNESCO does all what’s necessary to promote the freedom of expression, through all kinds of media, because it’s one of the main agendas of UNESCO.

UNESCO’s Network:

  • International Coalition of Inclusive and Sustainable Cities (ICCAR): It was started by UNESCO in 2004 to tackle the problem of racism that happened in Durban, South Africa 2001. It consists of 7 regional and national centers which make 10 point action plans in favor of education, culture, employment and housing.
  • UNESCO Associated School network: This is a network that connects all the educational institutions across the world. 11,500 schools in 187 nations work with each other to help promote peace, understanding, intercultural communication and quality education. ASPnet is essential to achieve the SDGs 4.7 goal of education for sustainable growth.
  • International Center for Technical and Vocational Education and Training (UNEVOC): UNEVOC is UNESCO’s international network which works especially in technical and vocational education and training(TVET). It works in the areas of exchange, collaboration and mutual assistance for its members. It consists of 250 centers in 160 member nations.

UNESCO Institutes:

  • International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP): It generates facilities for teaching, training and research in totally deleting social inequality and promoting authority and responsibility.
  • International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP): ICTP is the international organization to facilitate research in the field of science.
  • Institute for Lifelong Learning (UIL): It promotes the importance of lifelong education in adults across the globe.
  • International Bureau of Education (IBE): Its purpose is to promote intellectual governance and International collaboration in the field of education.
  • International Institute for Capacity Building in Africa (IICBA): Its purpose is to provide facilities in Africa to have more capable educators, to generate peace and prosperity in the whole of Africa.
  • Institute for Information Technologies in Education (IITE): Headquartered in Russia, Moscow, It is accountable for facilitating the innovative use of ICT and works as provider and promoter for accomplishing SDGs 4 through ICT enabled solutions.
  • International Institute for Higher Education in Latin America and the Caribbean (IESALC): Its duty is to promote education in the respective countries.
  • Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Education for Peace and Sustainable Development (MGIEP): It functions on accomplishing SDGs 4.7 education for creating peaceful and prosperous societies through emotional education and empowering the young generation.


Question 1. Who provides the funds to UNESCO?

Answer: The main source of funds is World Heritage Fund and it’s supported by member countries and also there are many volunteer support by different organizations.

Question 2. Which nations consist of the most UNESCO sites?

Answer. Italy

Question 3. How many UNESCO sites  exist in India?

Answer.  40 World Heritage sites

Question 4. What are the main themes of UNESCO?

Answer. There are five main themes:

  • Education
  • Culture
  • Science
  • Social and human sciences
  • Communication and Information

Question 5. Who began World Heritage day?

Answer. World Heritage day which is on 18th April was started by UNESCO, 1983.

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